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Muttra

city, british and river

MUT'TRA. The capital of a district in the United Provinces, British India. 23 miles north east of Bhartpur. on the right bank of the Jumna (Map: India, C 3). The city extends in crescent form fur about miles along the right bank of the river. to which access is facilitated from a paved street by numerous ghats and chatburahs, ornamented with pavilions and temples. The de votional ablutionary exercises of the mixed crowds morning and evening constitute one of the characteristic sights of the city. Ravines inter sect the town, and the streets are narrow, dark, and steep. The Hardinge, or Holi entrance gate, is a notable monument, and the houses of some of the wealthier native cla..s are adorned with fine sculptures. There are numerous mosques and temples, of which the Jumma Musjid.dating from 1060. is the chief. Among interesting remains are the ruins of Akbar's fort, centrally situated on the river hank, and the observatory built by the celebrated astronomer Jey Singh, who beeame Prince of Amber in 1693. still containing several astronomical instruments. Modern features are the museum. botanieal gardens, the European churches, and the extensive military cantonments to the south of the city. As early as the fourth

century, INIuttra is mentioned as a centre of Buddhism. As the reputed birthplace of Krishna and his brother Balamina, it is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims on the occasions of its religions festivals. The river abounds with tur tles. and the streets swarm with monkeys. pea cocks. paroquets. and sacred bulls, which are permitted to roam at large, protected and fed by the people. Mulira anciently was of great im portance. and its splendor and wealth made it an object of attack to the first Afghan invaders; ..lIahmud of Ifltarni in 1017 plundered and burned the city and carried off idols of gold. silver, and precious stones, valued at $1.500.000. In 1300, 1636, 1669. and 1756, it again suffered capture and spoliation. Since the British occupation in IS03, it has regained some of its former im portance. During the Indian Mutiny of 1837. the Sepoys here murdered their British officers and the insurgents at Delhi. Population, in 1891, 61.193; in 1901, 60,042.