N DER I I.) It was hoped that the terror inspired by the death of the Emperor would lead to the introduction of a constitutional system. When this hope failed. eonstructive measures were sought. In 1880 two reform pa rtie, were prominent: one of them had as its mouthpiece the Teherny Peredicl, which found its chief sup port in the workingmen, and proposed to educate and organize society in order that social revolu tion Might be effected. The second and more important party was the Na rodnaia Volia (Will of the People), \Odell sought to overthrow des potism by the communistic instincts of the mbas ants. It set forth a progranlIne with the follow ing demands: (1) A repuesentative assembly hav ing supreme control in all State matters: (2) provincial self-government with elective officers: (3) village communes, which were to be eco nomically and exeeutively independent ; (4) free dom of conscience, press, speech. association, and political agitation: (5) manhood suffrage; (13) militia, instead of a standing army; (7) na tionalization of land; (8) measures to socialize factories, etc. The Narodnaia practically dis
solved in 1884. With its downfall there came a period of quiet in the social movement, al though in the cities there still exists a reform movement among the workingmen. See COM MUNISM: SOCIAL' sm.
Consult: TurgenietY, La Russie ct les Russes (Paris, 1847) : Hertzen, La conspiration TUSSe de 1825 (London, 1658) ; Thum Geschichte des russischen Nihilism us ( Basel, 188:3) : niak, Underground Russia (London, 1883) ; Russia. Under the Tsars 1885) ; Tikhomirov, Russia, Political and Social (ib., 1887) ; Olden burg, Der russische N ih ilism us (Leipzig, 1888) : Stegmann. Handbuch des Socialism us, article "Rnssland" (Zurich, 1897) : Karlowitsch, Pie Entlyiekcluna des russischrn Nihilismus (3d ed., Berlin. 1880), a convenient short history of the movement ; Kenna n, Siberia and the Exile Sys tem (New York, 18911: Krapotkin, Memoirs of ca Rerolutionist (Boston, 1899).