NABON'IDUS (Ass. Xabir-nu'id, Nabu (or Nebo) is exalted; Ilerodotus (i. 74, 77, 188) has erroneously The last King of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, sixth in order of succession from Nabopolassar (q.v.), the founder of this empire. Ile came to the throne in B.C. 555 as a result of a conspiracy formed apparently by the priests of the city of Babylon against Labosoarchod (Ass. Labashi-Marduk), the grandson of Nebuchadnezzar (through the female line), which cost Labosoarchod his life. Nabonidns was a native Babylonian and not, as Iris predecessors since Nabopolassar, a Chaldean. In his inscriptions, of which a large number have been found, he appears chiefly in the light of a builder and restorer of the sacred edifices in such ancient centres as Ur, llarran, and Sippar. While he did not neglect the sanctuaries of Martini: and Nebo at Babylon and Borsippa, yet his greater devotion to other centres appears to have aroused the opposition of the priests and of the population of Babylon, and the neglect of suit able preparation to resist the threatening ad vance of Cyrus (q.v.), the leader of the Medes•
is probably to be ascribed to internal dissensions. It would appear that Nabonidus was not even present in the city of Babylon when in the sum mer of 538 the Persian army marched upon the capital. His son Belshazzar (Ass. Bel-shar-usur, Bel, protect the King) had been placed in control, while the father's official residence was at a place called Tema, the exact location of which is not known. Babylon fell, as a Babylonian chron icle puts it. 'without battle,' and in the autumn Cyrus himself entered the city in triumph and became heir to the glorious past of Mesopotamia and the Euphrates Valley. Belshazzar was put to death, while Nahonidus was banished to Kar mania. Consult: Rogers, History of Babylonia and Assyria (New York, 1900) ; and the Baby Ionian-Assyrian histories of Tiele (Gotha, 1886), Hommel (Berlin. 1S85), and Winckler (Leipzig, 1S92).