Home >> New International Encyclopedia, Volume 14 >> Murcia_2 to National Hymns >> Nadir Shah

Nadir Shah

tahmasp, throne, provinces, turks and lie

NADIR SHAH, na-der' shii ( 1688-1T-17 ). A King of Persia. He belonged to the Afshars, Turkish tribe. He was born near Kelat, in the centre of the Persian province of Khorasan. At the age of seventeen lie was taken prisoner by the Usbek Tatars, but, escaping after four years of captivity, he entered the service of the Governor of Khorasan, and soon obtained high promotion. Having. however, been degraded and punished for sonic real or supposed offense, he became an outlaw and for several years was the leader of a hand of 3000 fobbers. At this period the Persian throne was occupied by a usurper, Mir Vaiz. of the Afghan tribe of Ghilzai, who were bitterly hated by the Persians for cruelty and oppression. In favor of the rightful heir, Tahmasp 11., Nadir took up arms against Malik Aslu•af, the successor of Vaiz, and in token of his loyalty assumed the name of Tahmasp Kull, or Slave of Tahmasp. Defeating the usurper in a series of engagements, lie freed the provinces of Irak, Fars, and Kirman of even the semblance of Afghan domination. The as sassination of Ashraf during his retreat ter minated the war. Tahmasp then ascended the throne, and Nadir received for his services the government of the provinces of Khorasan, Mazan deran, Seistan, and Kirman. He was sent against the Turks in 1731, and defeated them at Hama dan, regaining the Armenian provinces which they had seized in the preceding reign. Mean while Tahmasp himself had been unsuccessful in his operations against the Turks. Nadir took this as a pretext to imprison the Shah, whose infant son, Abbas II., he placed on the throne in 1732. The death of this puppet. in 1736. opened the way for the elevation of Nadir him self, who was crowned as Nadir Shah. February

26, 1736. To win the support of the Afghans, the new ruler declared the Sunnite form of Mohammedanism to he the State religion instead of the Shiite, which has always been favored by the Persians. Nadir resumed the war with the Turks, and, though totally defeated in the first two battles by the Grand Vizier Asman, turned the tide of fortune in the subsequent campaign, and granted peace to the Turks on condition of receiving Georgia. He also eon Tiered Afghanistan, and drove hack the invading Usbeks, His ambassador to the Great Mogul haying been murdered together with his suite at Jelalabad, and satisfaction having been re fused. Nadir, in revenge, ravaged the North west Provinces and took Delhi, the capital of the Great Mogul, which was pillaged against his will (1739). With booty to the amount of four hundred million dollars, including the Koh i-nor (q.v.) diamond and the famous peacock Barone, he returned to the west bank of the Indus. lie next reduced Bokhara and Khwa rezin, restoring to Persia her limits under the Sassanids, and formed plans, which were never realized, for making Persia a maritime power. Embittered by an attempt to assassinate him in 1741, of prompting which lie suspected the heir apparent, Rizakuli, he blinded and im prisoned, Nadir's character underwent a sudden change. Formerly open-hearted, liberal, and talented, he became suspicious, avaricious, and tyrannical. Ile was assassinated on June 20. 1747, and was succeeded by his nephew, Ali, who as cended the throne as Mil Shah, or the 'righteous king,' lint was deposed within a year. Consult Maynard, Nadir Shah. (Oxford, 1885).