NANKING' (Chin., Southern Capital.) The capital of the Province of kiang-su, China, and seat of the viceroy for the three provinces of Kiang-sn. Kiang-si, and Ngan-hwei. It is 194 miles northwest of Shanghai, near the Yaug-tse River. latitude 32° 40' N., longitude I IS' 47' E. (Alai): China. E 3). It was made the capital of the Empire and called Nanking in 136S, but was the capital only until 1403. its official name. given by the Manchu Dynasty, is Kiang Ding. It is an ancient eity,having been the capital as far hack as A.D. 317-582. It has been famous as a literary centre and for its line arts, manufac tures, and Dim ?1111ments. It was captured by the Tai-pings in 1853, who held it for more than a year. They destroyed the beautiful porcelain tower from fear of its geomantic influences. and so injured the city that it has not yet recovered fully. The first British treaty was signed in Nanking in 1842. Its present • importance in
part is from its military college, arsenal, and factories for the making of war material. It is a centre of missionary activity. The climate is exceedingly unhealthful. The population is vari ously estimated at from one-quarter to one-third of a million inhabitants. It was opened to foreign trade in 1s99. but its commercial importance is insignificant, owing to the proximity of Chin kiang In the vicinity are the famous _Ming tombs.
A treaty port of Southern China, in the Province of Kwang-si, situated at the head of navigation (in the Yu-kiang 320 miles mcst by south of Canton I Map: China, C 61. It is one of the principal trading stations near the southern frontier, and lies on the route of the proposed railroad from Hanoi to Canton. Population, 40.000.