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engineer, ed-din and nasr

NASMYTH, na'smith, JAmrs (1803-90). A Scotch engineer and inventor. lie was born at Edinburgh, whore he received his education at the high school, the school of arts, and the uni versity. As a youth he was an expert mechanic and constructed models of steam-engines and other machinery. In 1829 he became assistant to Henry Mandsley. a London engineer. from whom lac derived much useful knowledge and ex perience. in 1834 he began the manufacture of machine tools at :Manchester, where his business rapidly inereased and developed into the well known Bridgewater Foundry. In 1839 he in vent,41 the steam hammer, which he improved from time to time. lie was also the inventor of many important machine tools. including n liy draulie punch and a steam pile-driver. and he was the first to propose the use of a submerged chain for towing boats on rivers and canals, and of dialed east•iron shot. in addition to his work as a mechanical engineer he was much in terested in astronomy and made many observa tions with reflecting tel which were strupt ed and mounted according to his ideas. Ilk astronomical work includes investigations of the surface of the sun and moon. which form the subjec1: of several papers, which were pub lished in elaborate form. Consult 'flaw.: :Va.

smut/0: _I it A st tobiogra phy. Pail ad by Smiles (London. 1861-62).

brAsR, ED-DIN, Misr (1829-96). A Shah of Persia. On the death of his father, Mohammed Mirza, September 10, 1848, he as cended the throne. At his aceession he found the country in confusion, hut by the aid of his Vizier, Mirza Taki Khan. he established himself firinlY, and proceeded to carry nut. numerous. re forms. These plans were unfortnnately inter rupted by the new Vizier, who was an enemy of all progress. Against the Turkomans and other neighboring peoples Nasr ed-Din was suceessful, but in 1871 the English put a stop to whatever thoughts of further conquest he may have enter tained defining the boundaries between Persia and Afghanistan. The Shah made three tours of Europe, in 1873, 1S78, and 1889. Nasr ed-Din introduced many reforms into his kingdom, and his long reign of forty-eight years has but one serious blot on it, the persecution of the Babis. He was assassinated in 1896, and was succeeded by his son, Muzaftar-ed-Din.