NATIONAL HYMNS. It is only within comparatively modern times that patriotism has found expression through the medimn of a no tiont.z/ song. In the few eases where a national Lynn dates back several hundred years, it will be found to have assumed its representative char acter recently. National music is inseparably connected with folk-music (q.v.), but is a later development, and instead of representing the work of individuals (influenced by s:intilar condi tions and surronndings) it embodies the feelings, tendencies. and ideas of a people. In tither words, folk-musie is individual in its character rather than national. Needless to say, however, it is the forerunner and basis of 'national music, which often reaches its culmination in the na tional hymn. The following list of national hymns covers the most important ones. It compiled largely from Sousa's .1 irs of All Lands (Philadelphia, 1890) : Argentine Republic—"Oid. mortales, el grito sagrado" (1810) (hear, oh Mortals, the Sacred Music by D. V. Lopez.
Austria—"Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" (1797). Words by L. L. Ilaschka; music hy J. Haydn.
Brabant:mine" (national air) ; by F. Campenhout.
Bohemia—"War-song of the Ilussites." Brazil—"Hymno da Prochunae5o da Repub lica" (1889) (Hymn of the Proclamation of the Republic). Words by Modeiros e Albuquerque; music by Leopoldo Miguez.
Burma—"Kayah Than" (Sound the Trumpet). Chile—"Dulce Patria" (national air) ; by Meet.
Costa Rica—"De la ('atria." Music by 1M. M. Gutierrez.
Denmark—"King Kristian stod ved hojen mast" (King Christian stood beside the mast). Words by Ewald: music by Hartman, Eeuador—"Salve, t Ih Patria." Egypt--"Salatun, LtTenaiWa" (March of the Finland—"\art land" (Our Land). Words by J. I.. Runeberg; music by E. Pacins.
Franec—"La -Nlarseillaise" (q.v.). Words and music by Rouge' de Lisle.
Germany—"Ileil air im Siegerkranz." Words by II. 'tarries to music of "God Save the King" Great Britain—"God Save the King" (q.v.). Hollatid—"Wien Ni•erlands." Ilungary—"Ist meg a tlagyarf" (Lord Bless the Hungarian).
Italy—"Boyal .March" (national air) ; by 0. (;,(ibetti.
gajo" (May the Empire Last 1.
al grito de guerra" (na tional air) (Mexicans, at the cry of war); by J. Nutai.
Nicaragua—National air, by Bias Villatas. Persia—"Salainati Shah." \husie by A. Le ma ire.
Peru—"Sonios libres, seamoslo sienipre" (We are free, let Its be so ever).
liiimanin—"'[l'aea.ca Regale" (Long Live the King) (]S62). ‘Cords by V. .\1exatIri; music by E. -1. Iliibseli.
Russia—''Bog lie Zaria chrany" (God l'rolect the Czar) ( 1830). Words by Zlitikovsky; music by A. LyotT.
Salvador—"Saludernos la Patria" (Let us hail our ('ountry). Words by .1.J. Calms; music by Aberle.
in his Goodness." Music by D. Jenko.
Spain—"Idinino do lliego." Mnsie by Herta. U Sweden—"r svenska hjertans" (Out of the Swedish Heart ).
Switzerlaml—''Iufst du. inein Vatcrlaml," to music of "(4)41 Save the King." United States—"Star Spangled Banner" (q.v.) and "Hail Columbia" (q.v.). (The former is played in the United States Navy at morning colors; the latter at evening colors.) Nacii Mai dc In Repribliea Oriental del Uruguay" I National Hymn of the Nepublie of Uruguay). Alusie by I). 1. Deballi.
\yenezuola—''I:Ioric al bravo pueblo" (18111 (Honor to a Bravo Nat hm). Words by V. Sal music by .1, Sandaeta.
Consult: Engel, .In Introduction to Ike Study of Valimml Musie (London, 18416; ; Fitzgerald, of Famous Songs ( il) 1 S9' )