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New York

island, miles, city, borough, county, square and brooklyn

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NEW YORK. The chief city of the State of New York, the commercial metropolis of the United States, the largest city of the Western Hemisphere, and after London the largest city in the world. It is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River, which enters the Atlantic Ocean through New York Bay, 205 miles in a direct line northeast of Washington, 715 miles east by south of Chicago, and 11)0 miles southwest of Boston; latitude of the City IlaII, 40° 42' N., longitude 74° W.

The climate, on the whole, is very healthful and enjoyable, but is subject to great extremes. As the continental climate extends to the Atlan tic coast of North America, the temperatures of New York City depend, to an important extent, upon the meteorologieal conditions of the interior regions. The humidity due to the proximity of the sea tends to increase the discomfort both of oppressively hot and severely cold days. The av erage annual temperature is about 54° Fahr. The mean temperature of the three winter months is about 34° ; spring, 52° ; slimmer, 75'; autumn, 57°. July is almost invariably a little warmer than the other summer months. The temperature of the hottest day ranges from 90' to 99°, and the mercury sometimes falls to zero or even below. The annual precipitation is from 36 to 42 inches, the amount of snow being from 20 to 30 inches. Cyclonic storms from the \Vest Indies occasionally bring very high winds, accompanied with a heavy fall of rain or snow.

New York Harbor, one of the finest in the world, has an entrance about a mile wide, be tween Fort Hamilton, the southwest corner of the Borough of Brooklyn, and Fort Wadsworth, the point opposite on Staten Island. This en trance, known as the Narrows, leads into a fine bay bounded by New Jersey and Manhattan Island on the north, Long Island on the east, Staten Island on the southwest, and New .Jersey on the west. It is about five miles wide and six miles long from north to south. The bronze statue, 'Liberty Enlightening the World,' hy (see LIBERTY, STATUE OF) , the largest statue of modern times, 151.41 feet in height, stands upon a pedestal 155 feet high on Bedloe's Island in the bay. The torch held aloft by the figure is lighted at night by electricity. Governor's Island, near

the Battery, the southern point of Manhattan Island, containing 65 acres. is occupied by the United States Government for military purposes. Ellis Island. a mile and a half from the Battery, architecturally prominent, with a fine modern building, also belongs to the United States Gov ernment and is used as a landing place for immi grants. On Swinburne and Hoffman Islands, in the Lower Bay, are institutions of the Quarantine Station.

Previous to 1874 the city did not extend be yond Manhattan Island. At the beginning of that year parts of Westchester County were incorpo rated with it. and in 1895 more territory in West chester County was annexed. In 1898 the eity's boundaries were enlarged to include Kings Coun ty- and part of Queens County. on Long Island, the whole of Richmond C ty (Staten Island), and part of the towns of East Chester and Pel ham. south of Westchester County. The city, which embraces an area of 309 square miles, con sists of rive boroughs. Tiese. in order of area, rank as follows: Queens (124 square miles), Brooklyn (60 square miles), Richmond (57 square miles). the Bronx (411 square miles). and Man hattan (22 square miles). The Borough of hattan consists of Manhattan Island (q.v.) and several small islands adjacent. The Borough of Brooklyn is coextensive with Kings County. (See BROOKLYN.) All that section of the city north east of the Harlem River, with a number of is lands. constitutes the Borough of the Bronx. It is nearly bisected by the Bronx River, and is mainly residential, its northern portion having a distinctly suburban character,though 11111(.11 of the southern part is closely built lip. The llormigh of illtdUldeA that portion of Long Islam] within the municipal limits. to the north and east of Brooklyn. It comprises Long 1s111101 City, flushing% Jamaica. Newtown. and part of I Iciopstead. A number (4 Ilne islands in Jamaica Ray belong to the Borough Of QuveIN. Long Island City is noted for its great industrial establishments. The reinainder of the borough consists of many pretty suburban villages and not a few Inlets of farm land. The 11,,romi of Richmond is coextensive with Richmond County.

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