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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 14

New Years Day
New Year's Day. The First Day Of The Year. The Custom Of Celebrating By Sonic Re Ligious Observance, Generally Accompanied By Festive Rejoicing. The First Day Of The Year, Ap Pears To Have Prevailed Among Most Of The An Cient Nations. The Jews, The Egyptians, The Chinese. The Romans, And ...

New York
New York. Cou.p.f. Of Tiif City Of. A Public Institution Of Learning In New York City. Established By The Board Of Education Of The City In 1s4s. And Originally Known As The Free Academy. Collegiate Powers Were Granted To It In 1s5s. And In 1s66 It Assumed Its Present Name. ...

New York
New York. The Chief City Of The State Of New York, The Commercial Metropolis Of The United States, The Largest City Of The Western Hemisphere, And After London The Largest City In The World. It Is Situated At The Mouth Of The Hudson River, Which Enters The Atlantic Ocean Through ...

New York Historical Society
New York Historical Society. A Society Formed For The Collection And Preservation Of Materials Relating To The National, Civic, Ur Ecclesiastical History Of The United States In General, And The State Of New York In Particu Lar. The Idea Of Such A Society Was First Agitated In Massaclumtts In 1789 ...

New York Public Library
New York Public Library. The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, And Til Den Foundations, Was Formed By The Consolidation On Slay 23, 1895, Of The Astor Library. The Lenox Library, And The Tilden Trust. The Astor Library, Incorporated January 18, 1849, Was Founded By John .jacob Astor, Who Bequeathed ...

New York University
New York University. An Institu Tion Of Higher Learning In New York City. It Had Its Inception At A Meeting Of Citizens Of High Business And Professional Standing In The Rooms Of The New York Historical Society, January 4, 1830, When A Committee Of Nine Was Elected To Proceed In ...

New Zealand
New Zealand, Gland. A British Ony In The South Pacific Ocean, Situated Between Latitudes And S.. And Between Longitudes And E.. A Little More Than Miles Southeast Of The Australian Con Tinent. New Zealand Proper Consists Of Two Large Islands. North Island And South Or Middle Island, Separated By Cook ...

Newark
Newark, The Largest City Of New Jersey, A Port Of Entry, And The County-seat Of Essex County, Eight Miles West Of New York: On The West Bank Of The Passaic River, Which Emp Ties Into Newark Bay Three Miles Below The City Proper, And On The Pennsylvania. The Lehigh Valley, ...

Newburgh
New'burgh. A City In Orange County, N. Y., Go Miles North Of New York City; On The Hudson River, About Five Miles Above The Picturesque Highlands, And On The Erie And The West Shore Railroads (slap: New York, F 4). It Is Built On A Steep, Terraced Slope, Rising About ...

Newburyport
New'buryport. A City, Including Sev Eral Villages, A Port Of Entry, And One Of The County-seats Of Essex County, Mass., 37 Miles Northeast Of Boston; I N) The Merrinme 1iivvr And On The Boston And Maine Railroad (slap: Massa Chusetts, F 2). Among The City's Noteworthy Buildings' And Objects Of ...

Newcastle Upon Tyne
Newcastle-upon-tyne, Tin. An Epis Copal City And Municipal County Of England, Capital Of Northumberland. On The Left Bank Of The Tyne. Eight Miles From Its Month England. H' ). The Town Stands Partly Upon An Ide‘ated Plateau And Partly Upon The North Bank Of River. The River Is Crossed By ...

Newcomb
Newcomb, Ninon, Simon (1835—). An American Astronomer And Mathematician, Born In Wallace, Nova Scotia. Ile Was Educated In His Father's School And Came To The United States In 1853. A Year Afterwards He Began Teaching In Maryland, And In 1857 Was Appointed Computer On The Nautical Almanac At Cambridge. In ...

Newfoundland
Newfoundland, Nit'ffind-liind'. A Brit Ish Colony In North America,comprising The Island Of Newfoundland And Its Dependency, Labrador. The Island Lies Across The Entrance To The Gulf Of Saint Lawrence Between Latitudes 46° 35' And 31 40' N., And Between Longitudes 35' And 39 23' W. It Is Separated From The ...

Newfoundland Dog
Newfoundland Dog. This, One Of The Largest, Handsomest. And Most Intelligent Of Dogs, Named From The Island Whence He Was First Introduced To European Notice, Offers, In His Present Charaeteristies, Something Of A Puzzle As To His Origin. Ile Is Not An Aboriginal New Foundlander. The (log Of The Native ...

Newgate
New'gate. A Famous London Prison, Es Tablished At The 'new Gate' Of The City, Probably Near The Beginning Of The Twelfth Century. The Earliest Authentic Mention Of It Dates From 1218, When It Was Repaired By Order Of The King. It Was Repaired And Enlarged In 1038, And Wholly Rebuilt ...

Newman
Newman, Jonn Henry (1801-90). An English Religious Leader, First In The Church Of England And Later In The Roman Catholic Church. Lie Was Born In Londlm, February 21, 1801, And Educated First At A Private School At Ealing, Then At Trinity College, Oxford. Which He Entered When He Was Not ...

Newport
Newport. A City In Campbell County, Ky., At The Junction Of The Ohio And Licking Rivers, Which Separate It From Cincinnati, Ohio, And Covington, Ky.; And On The Chesapeake And Ohio And The Louisville And Nashville Railroads (map: Kentucky. 0 1). There Are Bridges Across Both Rivers, And The Cities ...

Newport_2
Newport. A Port Of Entry And The County Seat Of Newport County, R. I., And Until 1900 One Of The Capitals Of The State, 17 Miles South By West Of Fall River, Mass,, And 30 Miles South Of Providence; On Rhode Island In Nar Ragansett Bay, And On The New ...

Newspaper
Newspaper. A Puhlie Print Issued At Periodical Intervals, Sold At A Fixed Price Per Copy, And For A Definite Period To Regular Read Ers Known As Subscribers, Anal Giving Three Classes Of Information: (a) Relating To Events, Or 'news'; (b) Opinions, Or 'editorials': And (e) Wares On Sale, Or 'advertisements.' ...

Newton
Newton. A City In Middlesex County. :alass., Adjoining Boston; On The Charles River And On The Boston And Albany Railroad (map: Massachusetts, E 3). Within The Municipal Limits Are 15 Villages, The City Occupying An Area Of About Is Square Miles. Newton Has A Site Of Great Beauty, Several Hills ...

Newton
Newton, Sir Is:a.kc (1042-1727). A Failloll9 English Mathematician And Natural Philosopher, Born At Woolsthorpe, In Lincolnshire. Newton Received His Early Education At The Glummer School Of Grantham, In The Neighborhood Of His Mpe, At Woolsthorpe. Onolune 5, 1661, He Lett Home For Cambridge, Where He Was Admitted As Subsizar At ...

Newton_2
Newton, Jona (1725-1807). A Church Of England Divine. Ile Was Born In London, July 24, 1723, Son Of A Sea-captain. After A Little Time At A Hoarding-sehool In Essex, He Went To Sea With His Father At The Age Of Eleven. During Six Years He Made Other Voyages With His ...

Newtons Rings
Newton's Rings. The Colored Rings Seen When A Thin Film Of Air Or Other Substance Inter Venes Between The Surfaces Of Two Plates Of Glass. This Phenomenon Is Named From Its Dis Coverer, Sir Tsaac Newton, Who In His Work On Optics Describes How He Took A Piano-convex Lens Designed ...

Next Friend
Next Friend. An Adult Person, Other Than A Guardian Ad !item, Who Represents In An Action Another Person Who, By Reason Of Infancy Or Other Disability, Is Not Legally Competent To Maintain The Suit In His Own Behalf. The Prac Tice Of Permitting An Incompetent Person To Sue By His ...

Nez Perce
Nez Perce, Pilr'sfe. The Leading Tribe Of Shahaptian Stock (q.v.). They Call Them Selves Shaptin, Whence The Stock Name, But They Were Known As Chopunni$it To Some Of The Neigh Boring Tribes, And Were Called Ncz-pero:, 'pierced Nose,' By The 1• Reneh, In Allusion To Their Lormer Custom Of Wearing ...

Ni Bering Seaontroversy
Ni ; Bering Sea ( 'ontroversy, Etc.) But The Question Of National Control In Its Present Phase Is Reduced To The Applieation Of The Rule To Broad Arms Or Recesses Of The Sea, Narrow Seas Inclosed Within The Territory Of A Single State, Straits Leading To Inland Seas, Such Inland ...

Niagara River And Falls
Niagara River And Falls (iroquois Jorakare, Thundering Water). The Niagara River Flows From Lake Erie To Lake Ontario, And Is The Outlet For The Whole Drainage Of Lakes Su Perior, 'huron. Michigan. Saint Clair, And Erie. The Surface Of Erie. Where The River Begins, Is 326 Feet Higher Than The ...

Nibelungenlied
Nibelungenlied, Ne'bedung'en-let' (ger., Song Of The Nibeltings). A Great German Epic, Composed By An Unknown Poet On The Basis Of Earlier German Songs, Traditions. And Possibly Latin Poems. At The Beginning Of The Thirteenth Century. The Original Form Of The Poem Is Probably In None I If The Ten Complete ...

Nicaragua Canal
Nicaragua Canal. A Proposed Ship Canal Across The Territory Of Nicaragua. By Way Of Lake Nicaragua. Connecting The Atlantic And Oceans, The Question Of Inb.roeeanic Column:tie:ilion Across Central America First Be Gan To Oeenpy The Attention Of The United States Shortly After The Establishment Of The Inde Pendence Of The ...

Niccolini
Niccolini, Nik'10-16.'ne., Giovanni Battista (17q2-1861). An Italian Poet. Born At San Ciuliano, Near Pisa, October, 1782. Ile Studied At Florence And Took His Degree In Law At The Uni Versity Of Pisa. In 1802 He Took A Government Clerkship; From 1804 To 1807 He Was In The Otliee Of The ...

Nice
Nice. The Capital Of The Department Of Alpes Maritimes. France, Situated On The Mediterranean, At The Foot Of The Alps, And At The Western Ex Tremity Of The Riviera, 140 Miles By Rail East Northeast Of Marseilles, And 640 Miles From Paris (map: France. 0 G). Nice Is Far-famed As ...

Nicholas
Nicholas, Nileo-las. The Name Of Five Popes. Nicholas I., Saint, Pope 858-67. Lie Was Of A Noble Roman Family, And Was Employed In Important Affairs By Benedict M., Whom He Succeeded• Being Crowned—the First Recorded In Stance Of The Coronation Of A Pope—in The Pres Ence Of The Emperor Louis ...

Nicholas 11i
Nicholas 11i., Pope 1277-80, Giovanni Gae Tano Degli Orsini. Lle Was Made Cardinal By Innocent Iv. In 1244, And Employed By Several Popes In Important Diplomatic On The Death Of John Xxi.. He Was Elected At Viterbo After A Prolonged Division In The Conclave, Which Was Only Terminated By The ...

Nicholas I
Nicholas I., L'avr.orrrrn (1796-1s55). Emperor Of Russia From 1825 To 1855. Lie Was The Third Son Of Paul 1., And Was Horn At Saint Peters Burg July 6 (old Style .tune 25). 1796. Ills Early Edueal Ion Was Under The Direction Of His Mother, A Princess Of Wiirttemberg. This Later ...

Nicholas Ii
Nicholas Ii. (1808— ). Emperor Of Rus Sia From 1894. He Was Born At Saint Petersburg, May 18 (old Style May 6), 1808, The Eldest Son Of Emperor Alexander 111. And Maria Feodurovna ( Princess Dagmar, Daughter Of Christian Ix. Of Denmark). In 1890-91 He Traveled Extensively In The East, ...

Nicholson
Nicholson, Sir Francis (1660-1728). A British Colonial Governor And Soldier In America. He Was Born In England, And In 1678 Entered The Army As An Ensign. In 1684 He Became A Lieu Tenant And Was Sent To America, Where In 1687 Lie Was Appointed Deputy For New York Of Sir ...

Nicholson_2
Nicholson, :roux (1521-57). A British General And Administrator In India. He Was Born In Dublin, December 11, 1s21. At Eighteen Ho Received A Cadetship In The Bengal Infantry. In 1841 He Fought Heroically To Defend Ghazni Against The Afghans, But Was Taken Prisoner And Cruelly Treated. His T-seape Was Followed ...

Nickel
Nickel (saved. Nickel. Connected Perhaps With Ocr. Nieket, Devil, Ef. The Etymology Of Co Balt: According To Others Connected With Icel. Ball. Lump). 21 Metallic Element Dis Covered By Cronstedt In 1751. It Was First Men Tioned In 1694 By Lliarni, Who Called It Koppar Nickel. Signifying False Copper, Beeause, ...

Nicobar
Nicobar (nik't?-biir') Islands. A Group Of Islands In The Indian Ileeall Beginning 130 Miles Northwest Of Sumatra And Stretching Northwestward For 200 Miles French 'en Do ('hina, 11 0). They Form With The Andaman Islands To The North Of Them The Northern Ex Tension Of The Great Chain Of Islands ...

Nicolai
Nicolai, N11e6-11, 'christi:wit Friedrich (1733-1811). A Well-known German Litt&rateur, Born In Berlin. From 1752 He Directed A Pub Lishing And Bookselling Establishment, Which He Made One Of The Largest In Berlin. Ile Became (1754) A Member Of A Literary Circle Which In Cluded Lessing And Moses Mendelssohn, With The Latter ...

Nicolaitans
Nic'ola'itans (gk. Noconairaf, Nikotaitai). Representatives Of A Form Of False Teaching And Loose Moral Practice, Mentioned Only In Revela Tion Ii. 6, 15, And In Early Christian Literature Bearing On These Passages. Among The Early References Is The Following By Trenams (against Heresies, I. 26) : "the Nicolaitans Are The ...

Nicotine
Nicotine (fr. Nicotine, Sp. Nirotiana. From Fr. Niroli?tne, Tobacco, Named In Honor Of Dean Niro!). One Of The Vegetable Alkaloids That Contain No Oxygen; It Constitutes The Active Principle Of The Tobacco Plant, In The Leaves. Roots, And Seeds Of Which It Occurs In Combination Malic And Citric Acids. The ...

Niebuhr
Niebuhr, Ne'bd7nr, Banrnot...n Geono (1776 1831). A German Historian. Critic, And Philol Ogist, Born August 27, 1776, At Copenhagen, Where His Father, Carsten Niebuhr, Then Resided. He Showed Singular Aptitude For Learning In His Earliest Youth, And His Powers Of Acquiring Knowledge Kept Pace With His Advancing Years. After Preliminary ...

Niedner
Niedner, Citatsrlan W1lhel( 1797-1565). A German Ceelesiastical Historian. He Was Born At Oberwinkel. Near Waldenburg: Studied Theology At Leipzig; And Wils Professor There (1829-49) And Afterwards At Berlin (1859 65 ) Gesell Otte (1( Kirche (2d Ed. 1856 ) Shows A Remarkably Minute Acquaint Ance With Materials, But Is Composed ...

Niello
Niel'lo (it., Blackish). A Black Substance Capable Of Being Ground Fine And Also Of Being Melted By A Moderate Heat. The Ingredients Are Essentially Silver And Sulphur, But Other Metals Are Melted With The Silver Before The Sulphur Is Added. It Is Used As Enamel Is Used, To Fill Up ...

Nietzsche
Nietzsche, 'she, ( 184-'- 19001. A German Philosophic Writer. One Of The Most Daring Thinkers And Charming, Stylists Of The Nineteenth Century. Lle Was Born At Near Leipzig. Son Of A Protestant Pastor Of The Village. Who Died When The Precocious Boy Nv ;e: Five Years Old. He Was Brought ...

Nievits
Nievits (lat.. Mole, Wart, Birth-mark), Or Burntttir.r's Mark. A Congenital Mark Upon The Skin Consisting Of The Product Of Excessive Development Or Fibrous Tissue. Hair, Blood-vessels, Or Pigment In A Circumscribed Area. The Term Is Generally And Perhaps More Properly Limited To A Variety Of Angionm, Or Vascular Tumor, Usually ...

Nighthawk
Nighthawk. The North American Night Jar (chop-del/es L'irginianus), Numerous And Well Known In All Temperate Parts Of The Continent In Summer, Whence In Winter It Migrates To The Tropics. It Is About 10 Inches Long And 23 Inches In Expanse Of Wing. The Gape Is Destitute Of Bristles. The Tail ...

Nightingale As
Nightingale (as. Nihfcqtclr, 011g. Naht Agala, Nochtiyan, From As. Niht. Night !mina, To Sing). A Justly Celebrated Migratory Song-bird Of Western And Central Europe. Which Is A Warbler.closely Related To The Robin Redbreast, And As Large As A Thrush—the 1)a Alias /ascinia Of Modern Ornithologists. It Is Rich Lirm‘n In ...

Nightjar
Nightjar. A General Term. Derived From Their Nocturnal Habits And Jarring Utterances On The Wing. For The Large Family Caprimulgid:c (i.e. Whieh Is Nearly Tan In Extent. Nightjars Are Bird- Varynig In Size From Eight To Fifteen Inches In Length; All Have Light Soft Idumage, In Finely Mottled Shades Of ...

Nihilism
Nihilism (from Lat. Nil, Nothing,from Nc, Not ± Hi/um, Trifle, Little Thing). A Term Applied To The Tenets Of The Revolutionary Wing Of The Russian Liberal Party. The Term Was First Used In A Novel By Ivan Tnrgenieff„ Fathers And Sons. Originally It Was A School Of Philosophic And Ethical ...

Nihon 1605 81
Ni'hon (1605-81). _\ Patriarch Of The Rus Sian Church. He Was Born Near Nizhni-novgo Rod, Became A Priest And Monk, And In 1646 Was Appointed. By The Czar Alexis Mikhailovitch, Areliimandrife Of The Novospasky :?lonastery At Moseow. Lit 1648 He Became Of Novgorod, And In 1652 W':rs Elevated To The ...

Niilitia
Niilitia. The Militia Numbers 13s Men. Illstimy. The Territory From Which Nevada Was Formed Was Aequired From 1\ Lexieo By The Treaty Of Onadalupe Ifidalgn, February 2, 1848, And Later Formed Part Of Utah Territory. The First, European Known Certainly To Have Entered The Region Was Francisco Oarec•s, A Franciscan ...

Nimbus
Nimbus (lat., Cloud). In Art, Especially In Sacred Art, The Name Given To The Disk Or Halo Which Enriches The Head Of The Sacred Personage Who Is Represented. Its Use Is Occasional In Non Christian Religious Art, Especially The Hindu, And It Was Not Unknown To Classic And Oriental Art. ...

Nimeguen
Nimeguen, ( T Ch Nijmegen). _a City In The Province Of Gelderland, Holland, On The Waal, Four Miles From The German Frontier Alap: Netherlands, D 3). It Is Situated On Several Bills, Has The Form Of An Amphitheatre. And Is. For T He Most Part, Poorly Buillwith Steep And Narrow ...

Nimrod
Nim'rod ( Heb. Nimrod). According To Gen. X. S Seq. (i. Citron. I. 10), The Founder Of The Babylonian, And Later Of The Assyrian Empire; Also "a Mighty Hunter Before ,jehovah." No Ex Planation Of The Name And Legend Has As Yet Received Common Assent. The Mythical Theory Which Found ...

Nimrud
Nim'rud. The Modern Name Of A Mound On The East Bank Of The Tigris, About 20 Miles Below Mosul (map: Turkey In Asia, K 4), Marking The Ruins Of An Ancient Assyrian City Identical With Calah (q.v.) Mentioned In Gen. X. 11. It Is One Of A Group Of Cities ...

Nineveh
Nin'eveh. The Later Capital Of The Great Assyrian Empire. The Etymology Of The Name (written /nun And Nina In Cuneiform Tions) Is Unknown. A Popular Etymology Con Nected It With 'fish; And Made Nineveh The 'fish•eity.' Presumably The Word Is Connected In Sonic Way With Nina. A Babylonian Goddess, Subsequently ...

Nippur
Nip'pur (modern Name. Nurran). One Of The Most Important Cities Of Ancient Babylonia, Situated On The Northeast Edge Of The District Now Occupied By The Afej Tribe; Of Arabs, Be Tween The Tigris And The Euphrates, About 100 Miles Southeast Of Bagdad. The Talmud Identi Fies It With Cableb (gen. ...

Nirvana
Nirvana, Mtr-vii'idi (std. Nirratto„ Extinc Tion, From Nis, Out Rana, A Blowing, From Rd, To Blow). In Buddhistie Iloetrine, The Term Denot Ing Final Deliverance From Transmigration. Il Implies, Consequently. The Last Aim Of Buddhism, Since Transmigration Is Tantamount To A Relapse Into The Evils Or Miseries Of Sachsura, Or ...

Nisi Prius
Nisi Prius (lat., Unless Before). A Term Applied To Certain Trial Emirts, Consisting Of One Judge And A Jury, \odell Have Jurisdiction For The Trial Of Civil Cases. The Term Originated In England Through The Practice Of Inserting In Writs Of Venire (q.v.). By Which Jurors Were Summoned. A Clause ...

Nitric Acid
Nitric Acid ( From Neo-lat. Nitrnm, Nitre, Natron, Lat. Nit Rain, From Gk. P(-rpop, Nit Rat, Xtrpop, Litron, Natron, Of Semitic Origin, Cf. Tleb. Nctcr, Natron, From Natur, To Loose), 11n11„. A Powerfully Acid Compound Of Hydrogen, Nitrogen, And Oxygen. Geber, In His Dc Hzrentiono Vcri Tatis, Described A Method ...

Nitrification
Ni'trifica'tion. The Term Applied To The Formation Of Nitrates In Soils And Manures Through The Agency Of Micro-organisms. It In Cludes Three Different Stages. Viz., (i.) (immuniza Tion, The Transformation Of Organic Nitrogen Com Pounds Into Ammoeia ; (2) Nitrozation, Or The Conversion Of Ammonia Into Nitrites; And (3) Nitration, ...

Nitro Or
Nitro Or Glonotx, An Explosive Substance Discovered By Sobrero In 1846. Although Sobrero Pointed Out The Possibilities Of The Substance As An Explosive Agent. It Found No Other Than A Lim Ited Use, In Dilute Alcoholic Solution, As A Remedy For Headache, Under The Name Of `glonoin.' Its Use As ...

Nitrogen
Nitrogen (from Nitrunt, Nitre, Patron, Lat. Nil Runt + Gk. Pro Ducing. From Gigne.ntlicri, To Become). A Gaseous Element Discovered By Rutherford In 1 7 72. Who Found That When A Small Animal Was To Breathe Air In A Confined Space For A Time. And The Carbon Dioxide Thereby Produced ...

Niu Chwang
Niu-chwang. Mvcbwpim`', Or Ying.tsf. The Only T Renty Port Of Manehuria. China. Situated In The Province Of Shite•-kine.. About 13 Miles From The Month Of The Liao !liver. Which Falls Into The Gulf Of Pe-chi-li, And On The Southern Branch Of The Trans-siberian Line (map: China, F 3). It Has ...

Nizhni Novgorod
Nizhni-novgorod, New'gter411. A Government Of Russia. Bounded By The Govern Ment Of Kostroma On The North, Vyatko. Kazan, And Simbirsk On The East. Penza And Tambov On The South, And Vladimir On The West. Area, About 20,000 Square Miles (map: Russia, F 3). The Government Is Divided By The Volga ...

Nizhni Novgorod_2
Nizhni-novgorod. Capital Of The Gov Ernment Of The Same Name, And A Great Commer Cial Centre Of Russia, Situated At The Confluence Of The Oka With The Volga, 273 Miles East Of :moscow I Mn): F 3). -lt Consists Of The Upper Town With The Kremlin. The Lower Town Along ...

Nlnino
Nlni.no. The Most Extensively Utilized Of The State's Diversified Geological Resources Are Its Clays. New Jersey Ranks Second In The Produc Tion Of Pottery And Third In The Total Output Of Clay Products. Brick Clay Is Found In Most Parts Of The State. The Value Of The Pottery Products And ...

Noah
Noah, Nit'a (lieh. .yd ( )ch ). According To The Itook Of Genesis, The Son Of La Med'. Who Ap Pears In Thee Lid Testament In A Double Eapaeity: (a) The Chief Survivor Of The Deluge. Which In Volved The Destruction Of All Mankind (gen, Vi, Ix. 17), And Hence ...

Noailles
Noailles, Na'ii'y'. A Noble French Family Of Limousin. Which Dates From The Eleventh Vett Tury. Anatrx Mat'atm:, 1)iike De Noailles (107r A .\l:n•.hnl It France, Born In Paris, The Eldest Son Of Anne Jules, Due De Noailles 1650 170s). Who Nv:is A1:m.1111 Also. The Son Bore The Title Of Coma ...

Nobel
No'bel, Au-non Bernard ( 1533-96). A Swedish Inventor And Philanthropist, Born At Stockholm. As A Child He Went With His Father To Saint. Petersburg, Where He Was Educated. In 1550-54 Lie Studied Meehanieal Engineering In The United States As A Pupil Of Flue Distinguished John Ericsson, And In 1863 Took ...

Nobility Of
Nobility (of. Nobility, Nobilitml, Fr. No From Lat. Nobilitax, Nobility. From Nobi/is, Wide, From Nosccrc, To Know; Connected With Gk. Yeyvatcrkew., Giy,t6skcia, Skt. Jioi, To Know, And Ultimately With Eng. Know). A Class Possessing By Hereditary Transmission Social Rank And Priv Ileges, And Often Political Privileges As Well, Greater Than ...

Node
Node. An Astronoinieal Term Used In Con Nection With Planetary Orbits. If We Disregard Certain Small Perturbations (q.v.) Of Planetary Motion, We May Say That Each Planet 1,1°n-es In An Elliptic Curve. Having The Sun In One Of Its Foci. This Curve Lies In A Plane Called The Plane Of ...

Node_2
Node, Nonat. Peril. When A Siring Or Metallic Eon], Under Tension. Is Made To Vi Brate. There Are Heard Besides The Principal Sound Secondary And Shriller Sounds. Whieli Are Denomi Nated Overtones Or Harmonic Sounds, And Are Pro Dueed By A Certain Portion Of The Cord Vibrating Independently. Investigation Shows ...

Noetic Consciousness
Noet'ic Consciousness (gk. Vonrik6s, Relating To Perception, From Vono-ts, Nt'sis, Perception, From Vociv, Norin, To Perceive, From V6os, Noos, Voos, ?ious, Perception. Mind; Probably Connected With Gigmiskein, To Know, And Ultimately With Eng. Know). It Is Affirmed By Many Psychologists That The Es Sential Iliarnc•teristic Of Mental Process Is Its ...

Noivristown
Noivristown. A Borough And The County Seat Of Montgomery County. L'a.. Is Miles West By North Of Philadelphia; On The Schuylkill River, The Schuylkill Canal, And The Pennsyl Vania And The Philadelphia And Reading Rail Roads Pennsylvania, F 3). It Is Beauti Fully Situated Among Hills And On The Schuylkill ...

Nolle Prosequi
Nol'le Pros'equi (lat., Will Not Prose Cute). An Entry On The Records Of A Court By The Public Prosecutor In A Criminal Ease, Or The Plaintiff In A Civil Action. To The Effect That The Proceedings Against The Defendant Shall Be Dis Eontinued. This Method Of Terminating Legal Proceedings Originated ...

Nomenclature Material Of Tile
Material Of Tile Study, Nomenclature. The Material Of The Study Is The Coin (a Word Derived Through The Freneh Coin. Die.' From The Latin Cuncus, 'wedge'), Which Is, Strictly Speaking, A Piece Of »oda/ Stamped With A /ego/ Impress For Public Rirenlation. Isidorus (0tioines, Xvi. 17) Well Expresses This Definition: ...

Nominalism
Nominalism (from Nominal, From Lat. Moninafia, Relating To Names, From »omen, Name; 1.1/11111.111.11 With Gk. Ovoga, Comma, Ski, Tuilnun, Ln:iturell Slay. Hue, 01r. A In In, Guth. No In 011g. Natno, (tee. _name, S. Nanta, Eng. Name). The Philosophival Theory That Only Individual Objects Have Real Existence, And That So-called ...

Nomination
Nomination (lat. Nominatio, From Nomi Moire, 01 11111111', From ;lumen, Name). In Politics, The Formal Selection And Presentation Of A Can Didate For An Elective Office. In The United States, Before The Development Of Political Parties, Ean Dblates Fin• Office Were Frequently Nominated At Private Conferences Or Caucuses Of The ...

Non Commissioned Officer
Non-commissioned Officer. A Sol Dier Holding A Rank Intermediate Between That Of The Enlisted Man Or Private Soldier And The Commissioned Officer. The Following Classifica Tion Gives The Various Non-commissioned Grades Of The United States Army In The Order Of Their Precedence: (1) Sergeant-major, Regimental, And Sergeant-major, Senior Grade, Artillery ...

Nonconformists
Nonconformists (from Owl-, Not -1- Con Formist, From Lat. Con(ormis, Similar, From Corn-, Together + Foram. Form). A Name Given Gen Erally To Those Who In Not Conform To The Religion Of Au Established Chureh. The Most Fre Quent Use Of The Word. However, Is In Relation To Those Who ...

Nonfeasance
Nonfeasance (front Non-, Not + Fca Sanee, Deed, From Fr. Faisant, Pres. Part. Of Faire, From 1.at. Facerr, To Do, Make). The Omission To Do :in Act Which One Is Under A Legal Obligation To Do. It Is The View Of Some Writers That Non Leas:tile(' Never Amount; To A ...

Nonjurors
Nonjurors (from Non-, Not + Juror, From Lat. Jurator, Swearer, From Jurare, To Swear, From /us, Law, Right). The Name Given To Those Clergy Of The Church Of England Who Refused To Take The Oath Of Allegiance To William And Alary, Believing Themselves Still Bound By Their Allegiance To James ...

Nonsuit
Nonsuit. The Termination Of An Action By Entry Of Judgment Against The Plaintiff Upon His Failure To Appear Or Prosecute The Action, Or Because Of His Inability To Sustain His Ease Al The Trial, In Of Which The Action Is Ended Without A Determination Of The Merits. Under The Early ...

Nordau
Nordau, Nor'dou, Max Simon (1849—). A German Author, Pathological Critic Of Literature And Of Morals, And A Prominent Leader In The Zionist Movement In Europe. Ile Was Born In Budapest Of An Educated Jewish Family; Studied Medicine In The University Of That City, Getting His Degree In 1872, And After ...