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town, newcastle, street, building, river, tyne and engineering

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NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE, tin. An epis copal city and municipal county of England, capital of Northumberland. on the left bank of the Tyne. eight miles from its month England. h' ). The town stands partly upon an ide‘ated plateau and partly upon the north bank of river. The river is crossed by three bridge-. which connect Newcastle with Gateshead 19.v.)—the Iligh Level Itriilge. the Redlieugh Bridge. and a swing bridge (completed in 1874 at a cost of nearly The High Level is one of the engineering triumphs of lIffbert Stephenson. The length of the viaduct is I:137 feet, and the height of the railway above high water mark, 112 feet. It has a broad ear by which Ordinary t ra tlic a voids the precipitous streets on both sides of the river, with' passenger paths on each side, and the rail way filfove.

The of Saint Nieholas is a noble edifier., chiefly in the 1)ecorated style. In the Guildhall. tin old and somewhat inconvenient building, situated Ifeside the river. the town assizes are opened and the quarter ,1`,.1011, held. l'nfler the Guildhall proper there is an exchange for the ship-owners, and brokers of the quay side. In the \loot Ilall. a modern. handsome Grecian building overlooking the swing-bridge, the town and county assizes are held. The spacious town hall, a modern building, stands on a block of ground facing Saint Nicholas Church; associated with it are a torn market and offices for the transaction of the town business. The market for the sale of meat and vegetables is one of the most spacious and commodious in the kingdom. All the railways entering the town terminate in a large station near its centre. The jail, a heavy and costly building, occupies a loan• and confined situation. The postal and telegraph office is one of the largest and finest of the public buildings in the town. There are two theatres—the Royal (the ornament of Grey Street, the handsomest street in the town), and the Tyne Theatre in Westgate Street. Among the educational institutions are a natural history museum, a public library. a liter:try and phi losophical society of antiquaries. a nat lira I /1'y society, 1111.011111iV,* and

an institute of mining engineers. The colleges of medicine and science are both connected with the l'niversity of Durham. A column surmounted by a statue of Earl Grey, to commemorate the passing of the Reform Bill, and a bronze statue to George Stephenson are the principal monu ments in the city.

Of benevolent institutions there are an in firmary, a dispensary, asylums for the blind. the deaf and dumb, and two orphanages. The mu nicipal property is valued at *15.000.000, and consists of real estate, markets. street railways, and quays. The municipality maintains baths, wash houses, free libraries. cemeteries, and dust destructors, and Mdireetly Contributes to tech nical education; important domestic utilities such as gas, water. etc., are provisionally monopolized by companies. Extensive improvements have modernized the older portions Of the town. and the streets generally are wide, well paved and well lighted. The trade of Newcastle consists chiefly in coal from the Northumberland and Durham regions, of which it is the great centre. large quantities of lead, the produce of the mines of -1Iston 'Moor and Weardale. are brought to Newcastle for manufacture, and a large quantity of unrefined lead is also imported from Spain.

At Neweastle the railway system had its origin, and its locomotive and engineering works are among the largest in England. The ordnanee works of Sir William .\rmst•ong at El-wick. the western part of NI.Vil.a,41e. are well known. Iron shipbuilding and various branehes of engineering are extensivcl• earried 011, and since 1882 several men-of-war have been constructed on the Tyne. Newcastle occupies an important position in the manufacture of soda. bleaching-powder, vitriol. salt, and other chemical products. Earthenware is largely manufactured. and glass-staining has reached great perfection. The firebrick trade has attained large proportions. and there are important manufacture,: of gas-retorts and sani tary pipes. which are sent all over the world. Immense nnmbers of grindstones are exported. Portland and other cements are mannfactured in vast plant it ies.

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