NEWCOMB, ninon, SIMON (1835—). An American astronomer and mathematician, born in Wallace, Nova Scotia. Ile was educated in his father's school and came to the United States in 1853. A year afterwards he began teaching in Maryland, and in 1857 was appointed computer on the Nautical Almanac at Cambridge. In 1858 he graduated at the Lawrence Scientific School, and in 1801 was appointed professor of mathe matics in the United States Navy. Ile negotiated the contract for and supervised the construction of the 26-inch equatorial telescope at the Naval Observatory. He vas secretary of the Transit of Venus Commission in 1871-74, observed the transit of Venus at the Cape of Good Hope in 1882. and directed several eclipse expeditions, be ginning in 1860. In 1877 he became senior pro fessor and director of the Nautical Almanac, a position which he held till he was retired on ac count of age in 1897, HP was professor of mathe matics in Johns Hopkins University in 1894.1901 and editor of the American Journal of Mollie matirs. Newcomb a member of nearly all the Imperial and Royal Societies of Europe and of the various scientific associations of this coun try. Ile was also made an associate of the Insti
tute of France. and an officer of the Legion of Honor, being the first American since Franklin to be so honored. Ile was president of the Amer ican Association for the Advancement of Science in 1877, of the Society for Psychical Research in 1883-1880, of the Political Society of America in 1887, of the .American Mathematical Society in 1897-189S, and of the Astronomical and Astro physical Society of America. from its foundation in 1899: vice-president of the National Academy of Sciences in 1883.89. and was chosen president of the Saint Louis Congress of Arts atm Sciences. Ile received the Copley (1874), the Huygens (1878), the Royal Society (1890), and the Bruce medal (1898) : and numerous other prizes and honorary degrees from societies and in this country and Europe. In addition to sci entific attainments he wrote on nuance and Imo litical economy. and delivered a course of lec tures at University on kindred topics.