NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. This, one of the largest, handsomest. and most intelligent of dogs, named from the island whence he was first introduced to European notice, offers, in his present charaeteristies, something of a puzzle as to his origin. Ile is not an aboriginal New foundlander. The (log of the native Beothuks. was that of the adjacent mainland (Labrador), used mostly for hauling sleds, and it had a double coat of the warmest and thickest hair, the hairs protruding through an undercoat of short and fluffy fur, or 'wool.' From early in the six teenth century French, Spanish, Portuguese, and English fishermen frequented the shores of New foundland in ever-increasing numbers. The pres ence of so relatively great a foreign population, all arriving in short periods, overtaxed the capability of the native dogs to meet the demand, and, exactly as happened later in Alaska, the first settlers took into the island 'outside dogs,' among which were undoubtedly some of the big dogs of Spain, where the mastiff. the bloodhound. and a ferocious variety of pointer were then com mon. These crossed miscellaneously with the Indian dogs, but the pointer especially seems to have introduced into the double-coated native his color, size, intelligence, and keen scent, all qualities well marked in the Newfoundland dog us he came into European knowledge at the end of the eighteenth century. So highly was he then
esteemed for his wonderful retrieving powers, that he was almost entirely exported, and his breed in the land of his home almost eliminated. In quiries made in 1890 showed that, except in one or two Outlying islands, none remained in New foundland. Fortunately, the breed has been main tained in Great Britain and in America, from the original stock.
The Newfoundland is a massive dog, 27 inches high at the shoulder. and often weighing 100 pounds. In color lie is almost always black and white, or all black, although when first imported many were brown and white; and he has a dense coat of eoarse texture and oily nature, able to resist water, for which this breed has a passion. If the coat he brushed the wrong way it should fall hack into its place naturally. His head is broad and massive; his fore legs perfectly straight, his hind legs very strong with great freedom of action; his feet large and lvell shaped; his ears small, set well hack and lying close to the head. Ilis eye is small and deeply set, but dries not show any haw. Consult authorities cited under Doe.