NEWTON. A city in Middlesex County. :Alass., adjoining Boston; on the Charles River and on the Boston and Albany Railroad (Map: Massachusetts, E 3). Within the municipal limits are 15 villages, the city occupying an area of about IS square miles. Newton has a site of great beauty, several hills contributing to its pic turesqueness, and it is one of Boston's handsome suburbs. There are 160 acres of city larks, be sides the Metropolitan Park reservation (118 acres), and the Metropolitan parkways, which extend along the Charles River. The city main tains a public library (61,400 volumes), and is the seat of the Newton Theological Institution (Baptist), opened in 1325, the La sell Seminary for women, opened in 1351, and the Allen School for boys, opened in 1353. Among the more promi nent buildings are the First Baptist Church and Eliot Church, and the high school and several grammar schools. The Eliot Memorial in honor of the 'Apostle to the Indians' stands near the site of Waban's Wigwam. where John Eliot be gan on October 28, 1646, to preach to the dians, in the town called `Nonantum; A large cemetery is in the heart of the city. 'Though Newton is primarily a residential city. it is en gaged to a considerable: extent in manufacturing. Its industrial establishments include machine shops, tire-alarm supply works, silk mills, wors ted mills, rubber works, manufactories of paper boxes, curtains, railway signals, cordage, shoes, etc. The manufacturing interests are promoted by the water power of Charles River. Under a charter, last revised in 1899 and 1902, the gov ernment is vested in a mayor, hereafter to he elected for two years, and a board of aldermen, in which each ward is represented by three mem bers—one alderman elected annually by the ward, and two aldermen-at-large elected from the ward on a general ticket, one being chosen each year to serve two years. Some of the ad
ministrative officials are elected by the board of aldermen, and some are subject to confirmation by that body upon nomination of the mayor. The school committee is chosen by popular vote for terms of three years. Newton spends an nually in maintenance and operation more than $1.000,000, the principal items being: for inter est on debt, $265,000; for sinking funds, $110, 500: for schools, $200,000; for drains, parks, sewers, and streets, $170,000; for the police de partment, $70,000; for municipal lighting, $53, 500; for the fire department and wires, $58.000; for the charity department. $25,000; for the health department, $21,000. Newton is one of the wealthiest citiek per capita in the United State-s: the assessed valuation of property, real and per sonal, in 1902 was about $62,000,000. and the net debt January 1, 1903, $4.331,233.94. The water-works are owned and operated by the municipality. Population, in l390, 24,379; in 1900, 33,587. Settled in 1031 and originally a part of Cambridge (Newtowne), Newton was itteorporated as it separate town in 1088, being called New Cambridge until 1692. it was char tered as a city in 1873. Consult Smith, history of A eleton, Massachusetts (Boston, 1880).