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pope, conflict and brought

NICHOLAS, nileo-las. The name of five popes. NICHOLAS I., Saint, Pope 858-67. lie was of a noble Roman family, and was employed in important affairs by Benedict M., whom he succeeded• being crowned—the first recorded in stance of the coronation of a pope—in the pres ence of the Emperor Louis II. The most im portant events of his pontificate are those connected with his conflict with l'hotius, who had been illegally intruded into the See of Con stantinople. ( See PlIOTIUS ; CREEK CIIIIRCH.) Throughout his reign he was one of the most uncompromising upholders of the claims of the Roman See to universal jurisdiction. A pro longed contest in practical matters with a West ern prelate of great pourer and individuality, llinemar, Archhishop of was terminated by Hinemar's submission. The matrimonial af fairs of the German princes also gave him much trouble; and his firmness in upholding the sanctity of the marriage tie brought Ilia into conflict with the Emperor. who marched upon

Rome and held the Pope a prisoner without food for two days in the Castle of Sant' Angelo, until. terrified by a sudden illness and by some fatali ties which befell his followers, he drew off his forces and made peace. Nicholas brought the new Slavonic Church. just growing up through the preaching of Cyril and Slethodius under the control of the Papacy. Altogether he was one of the most vigorous of the early pope., one who laid the foundations upon which Gregory VII. could build; an impressive figure, who may stand with Charlemagne to close centuries of formation and preparation, and open the Middle Ages. Consult: Leroy. Saint Nicholas J. (Paris, 189s: Eng. trans.. London, 1901) ; Hergenriither, t rill reit non. 'oast an inovl (1Zegen, burg, 18671; L.:banner, Paps/ Niku/ans and die by: 0 n ism .tau sk rehe seiner Zeit (1;erlin, 1857) ; Schriirs, Erzbisehof run Reims (Freiburg, 1884).