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NIMEGUEN, ( t ch Nijmegen). _A city in the Province of Gelderland, Holland, on the Waal, four miles from the German frontier Alap: Netherlands, D 3). It is situated on several Bills, has the form of an amphitheatre. and is. for t he most part, poorly builLwith steep and narrow streets. The town is strongly fortified and garri soned. Among the noteworthy edifices are the lurch of Saint Stephen, a handsome Gothic strue t nye dating from the thirteenth century, and the town hall. with a museum of Roman antiquities. In the beautiful Valkhof Park are ruins of an ancient Imperial palace. Nimeguen is a large market for cattle and agricultural products. espe cially grain and wine. It is noted for its Weiss bier and its eau de cologne, and has manufactures of flour. cigars, tin. and other metal ware. leather. and furniture. Population, in 1895, in 1900. 42.756. chiefly Catholics.

Nimeguen was founded by the Romans. who made it a permanent camp, in order to keep in subjeetion the Teutonic trihes northeast of the Rhine. In the .Alidelle Ages it was a member of the Ilan:eatic League. It was taken by the Spaniards in 15S5, but was revovered six years later. The Peace of Nimeguen in 167S-79 brought to a 'lose the war betv‘een France and the Dutch and their allies, initiated by Louis XIV,'s inva sion of the Netherland- in It172. Peace between Franey and Holland was concluded on August I I, 167'4: between Franey and Spain on September 17. 1678; between France and Emperor on February 5, 1679: and between Holland and swedem the ally of France, on ttetoher 167o, France sceured possession of Era fiche-Cointel and a portion of Flanders. The Peace of Nimeguen was the culminating point in Louis career and made France the leading power of Europe.

NiMES. nean. The capital of the Department of Gard, France. in Lower Languedoe. situated a fertile plain at the southern base of a range of outlying hills of the CC-venues, 171 'idles ouths, uthwest Lyon s M a P . 1. The climate of Nimes is not particularly agree able. owing to its winds and dust storms. and to its heat in summer. It is a unique city in that it contains very ancient constructions side hy side with modern and handsome buildings, streets, etc. It has splendid monuments of Roman times, and its antiquities are of almost every description. The fine Esplanade, ap proached by the spacious Avenue Fenehe res. and flanked by the immense Roman amphitheatre, and adorned hy a magnificent fountain decorated with statues by Prather. forms a centre of strik ing interest. Here also are found the modern Palace of Justice, and a statue to Soleillet. the French explorer. The aniphitheatre—Les Arenes —is an ellipse 438 feet long. and while smaller than the famous ones of Italy, is in a better state of preservation. Its construction is inter

esting. It was built at the beginning of our era and was capable of seating 24.000. Its restora tion NrIS begun in 1S5S.

The most striking structure in Nimes is t:ie far-famed Alaison-Carrm e. an imposing Roman temple. well preserved. It is 76 feet long and feet wide. and is embellished with 30 Co rinthian columns. The whole edifice is in ex cellent taste and possesses rich features. It is now thought to have been built early in our era. It evidently belonged in the ancient forum. After having served various degraded uses dur ing the centuries, it was artistically restored in the eighteenth century. It contains a eollec thin of Roman relies. some exhibiting a fine style of workmanship. Its Venus of Nimes. however, is mediocre. The Romanesque Church of Saint Paul has splendid mural paintings by the two Flandrins. Nimes has a Reformed Grand Temple of a very simple architectural style. The uninteresting cathedral was built of mate rials from ancient ruins. The Jardin de la Fontaine is a lovely garden, with a canal. cas and basins. and a statue of Antoninns Pius. who was born in Nimes. Among the Roman remains are the Tour Alagne. 90 feet high. affording a line view: a little Temple of Diana: and the Porte d'Auguste. The HAtel Dieu has an altraetive fneade. The Central Prison. with a capacity for 1400 persons, was an ancient citadel.

The Ecole des Iteaux-Arts is modern. The city lihrary has 75,0110 volumes. This collection is installed in a former Jesuit college which has been provided with a handsome modern facade. The Alaison-Carrele eontains an arelceo logieal museum. in the picture gallery in the southern part of the town are some creditable paintings. has a Calvinistic consistory. lyceum. a Protestant normal school for wo men, a Catholic seminary for priests, and in dustrial and art The manufacturing in dustries are still important, though declining. Silk. wine, liquors, are extensively produced and dealt in. Nimes also manufacture: upholstery. shawls. lace. handkerchiefs. carpets. leather, and iron products. Population. in 1901, sn.(103, nearly one-fourth being of the Reformed faith.

Nimes ( La t, Yea/a was t he leading, Roman colony in Gaul after n.e. 120. and was a provinvial city of trite magnificence. It fell under the scourge of the Vandals in A.n. 407, and was plundered by the Northmen in 559. It turned Calvinist at the Reformation and entered upon a troubled career. After the fall of Xapoleon its eilizens—or the Bandes Verdets—persecuted the Protestants. Cnizot and Daudet were born there. The beautiful ruined l'nnt du Gard is northeast of Mmes. Consult : Pierre. Ilistoire dr In rifle tic th.puix IS,V) juxqu'il nos fours (Nimes, 1886-88) Bazin, Nimes gallo-ronicthz. 1S91 .