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bc, palace and northwest

NIM'RUD. The modern name of a mound on the east bank of the Tigris, about 20 miles below Mosul (Map: Turkey in Asia, K 4), marking the ruins of an ancient Assyrian city identical with Calah (q.v.) mentioned in Gen. x. 11. It is one of a group of cities which clustered around Nine veh and may be regarded as a suburb of the lat ter. The chief discoveries were made at Ninumd by Layard in 1845-47 and 1849-51, though there were also later excavations by George Smith and Rassam. The city was a quadrangle about five miles in circumference, surrounded by a wall with towers. The most important buildings dis covered were: (1) it stage-tower (zikkarrat1 at the northwest corner of the mound; (2) temples near the tower, in which valuable inscriptions were found; (3) the so-called northwest palace built by Assurnazirpal (me.. 335-S00). and re stored by sargon I n... 722-7(13), 350 feet square; the sculptures found here were particularly line and instructive, and there was a rich harvest of small objects of art, utensils of daily life, tools, armor, and the like; ( I) the centre palace (of Shalmaneser IL, B.C. 860-825, rebuilt by Tiglath

pileser III., B.C. 745-727) ; here was found one of the most interesting of all Assyriologieal monuments—the famous black obelisk of Shai maneser Ii., now in the British Museum, which gives an account of the campaigns of the King during thirty-one years of his reign; (5) the southwest palace ( Esarhaddon's, B.C. 681-603), built with materials taken from the northwest and centre palaces; (6) the southeast palace (Asshuretililani's, after B.C. 625) ; (7) a temple of Nebo, at first wrongly called the tomb of Sar danapalus. The history of Calah has been traced back to Shalmaneser I. (c.1300 n.c.), who calls himself its builder. It was afterwards neglected for a time, but was rebuilt by Assurnazirpal and was the capital of the Empire for two cen turies. About B.C. 700 it gave way to Nineveh, and was destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians when they conquered Assyria. For bibliography, See NINEVEH; see also ASSYRIA; ASSYRIAN ART.