A government of Russia. bounded by the Govern ment of Kostroma on the north, Vyatko. Kazan, and Simbirsk on the east. Penza and Tambov on the south, and Vladimir on the west. Area, about 20,000 square miles (Map: Russia, F 3). The government is divided by the Volga and the oka into two parts, of which the northern is low, marshy, and covered with thick forests. while the southern is more or less elevated and intersected by many river valleys. The district is watered by the Volga, the Oka, the Vetluga, and a number of smaller rivers. most of them navigable. The climate does not diger essentially from that of other parts of Central Russia, The mean annual temperature is about 40'. Of min eral, Nizhni-Novgorod has iron. alabaster. and various kinds of (day. Aglf•ulture is the founda tion of the economic life of the region. Rye and oats are the chief agricultural products. The forests cover nearly 40 per cent. of the total area.
In the develomnent of the house industry the Government of Nizhni-Novgorod is inferior only in few parts of Russia. In the northern section wooden articles are the chief manufactures, while in the southern Dart locks, knives, and other small articles of iron are manufactured. Leather and leather products are nninufactured all over the district. Large numbers of the inhabitants are also engaged in navigation. The factory sys tem is only slightly developed. The eensus of 1895 gives for the Government of NizIod-Nov gornd 301 employing over 20.000 persons and yielding an output of over N10,000, 000. The chief products are flour, machinery, chendeals, leather, spirits. etc. The cninmeree is practically confined to the capital, Nizhni-Nov gorod. Population, in 1807. 1,600.304. including a considerable number of AlotQi'ins (q.v.) and Talons.