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fair, town, volga, kremlin, city and russia

NIZHNI-NOVGOROD. Capital of the gov ernment of the same name, and a great commer cial centre of Russia, situated at the confluence of the oka with the Volga, 273 miles east of :Moscow I Mn): F 3). -lt consists of the upper town with the kremlin. the lower town along the Oka and the Volga, and the fair grounds with the adjoining suburb on a sandy tongue formed by the 1.1)1111111.111-e of the two rivers and connected by a bridge with the town proper. The tipper Iowa. situated On hilly ground, con tains principal buildings—the Kremlin, sur rounded by a wall dating from the sixteenth and inclosing two I.:It 1110 :11114111 1.81:1(.1. now occupied by the I fovernor. the I, and the law courts. The town ha; about Go Greek Orthodox churches, a number of monasteries, a mosque. and an Armenian church. Atnnng the evelesiastival edifices are the church ill the Mon astery of the Annunciation, containing a holy image of great antiquity (933). which attracts many pilgrims, the thirteenth-century Cathedral of the Archangel, with a line treasury, and the Cathedral of the Transfiguration. rebuilt in 1834 and holding the tombs of the primps and p1"ill of Nizlini-Novgorod. The chief mwitlar buildings are the palace of the Governor, the Museum of Art, housed in one of the Kremlin towers. and the theatre. The educational insti tutions include a theological seminary, an insti tution for the sons of noblemen, a military acad emy, two gymnasia, a lieulsehule, and a number of special schools.

The fair to which the city chiefly owes its fame and importance was transferred to Nizhni Novgorod, from Makariev (about 55 miles below the city) in 1817. The value of the merchandise brought annually to the fair averaged somewhat over $10,000.000 for the decade of 1817-20. about $96.000,000 for 187 7-S11, and about $89.000.000 for 1587-96. The construction of railways and the general modernization of commercial methods in Russia during the last part of the nineteenth cen tury have naturally detracted from the impor tance of the fair. It is still, however, a great

factor in the economic life of the country, and derives additional interest from the fact that it is the most important representative of a com mercial system which is rapidly disappearing from civilized countries. The central industrial governments of Russia are represented at the fair by their different manufsetures, the regions of the Lower Volga by lisp, and that of the Kama by salt, The Caucasus sends petroleum. wine, and native manufactures; the southwestern gov ernments, sugar; and the region along the middle course of the Volga, grain and lumber. From Siberia come furs. tallow, and oil; from China, tea; from Central Asia, furs and raw cotton; from Persia. fruit; and from Western Europe manufactures and groeeries. The fair. which opens in the last week of July and lasts till about the middle of September. attracts over 100,000 merchants from every part of the Empire.

There are thousands of shops, the material of construction being stone, and a splendid fair palace was erected in 1800. The grounds are lighted by electricity and traversed by an electric railway line. The industries of the city are com paratively unimportant. The chief products are beer, locomotives, machinery. and (-flintiest. There are a number of important financial institutions. Population. in 1897, 0.5,100, which is increased during the fair to about 200.000.

The town was founded by the Grand Prince of Suzdal, Yuri Vsevolodoviteh, in 1221. it was attacked repeatedly by the Tatars and the neigh boring princes and sniTered much from famine and pests. it was annexed to the Principality of lloseow about the close of the fourteenth century.