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founder, university, lie, explosive and discoverer

NO'BEL, Au-non BERNARD ( 1533-96). A Swedish inventor and philanthropist, born at Stockholm. As a child he went with his father to Saint. Petersburg, where he was educated. in 1550-54 lie studied meehanieal engineering in the United States as a pupil of flue distinguished John Ericsson, and in 1863 took out the first patent for the manufacture of an explosive eom of nitroglycerin and common gunpowder. In 1864 he was granted a second patent. The use I if nitroglycerin was for a number of years attended by such serious accidents that the prep aration was very widely discarded. In 1567. however, Nobel invented dynamite, or giant powder, composed of 75 per tent. of nitro glycerin and 25 per cent. of kieselguhr, a finely pulverized siliceons material derived from the shells of fossil infuso•ians. This compound could he handled with less risk than could gunpowder, and was not iW1lucWced by heat or damp. In 1576 the inventor patented an improvement. known as explosive gelatin. Further inventions Nobel—t he total number reported tiled in I ;rent Britain is 129—inelude ballistite, a propellent which was among the earliest of modern smoke less powders, and artificial gutta-percha. In 1575, by his own statement, lie controlled fifteen dynamite factories in various parts of the world, including those near San Franeisco and New York City, in the United States. of his experimentation in his later year.: was eonducted in his great laboratory at San Remo, near Nice. lie subscribed half the :lumina necessary for the equipment I if the ai;ronaut Salomon Andrtle.

and gore uuiWtu tit general Citarii it's, hilt is best known as the founder of the Nobel prize fund of S9.200.000 (redueed be taxation to about the animal interest on which is yearly to he divided into live equal parts, to he distributed to the five most deserving persons in as many departments of liminin activity. Award is made for (a) the most important. invention or diseovery in physics: (b) the most important discovery or improvement in chemistry: (e) the most important diseovery in plo•siology or medi cine: (11) the most remarkable literary work of an idealistic nature: and (e) the most or best \cork done in (Ina interests of universal pence. The first four prizes are awarded by the Aeade mies of Sweden. the fifth by the .Norwegian Stor thing. The first awards were announced on Decem ber 10, 1!1111 : physics. to Wilhelm Mingo'. of Munich University, Germany, discoverer of the Brangen rays; in chemistry, In .1. 11. Van 't ma, of Ucghul university, founder of a new system of stereo•ehemistry ; in physiology mid medicine, to Emil Behring, of Ma 'burg University, discoverer of anti-toxin for diphtheria ; in litera ture. to Armand Sully-Prudhomme. of the French Academy. author of Justice (1878) and other poems. and Dc l'expression dons les -bra ix-urIS 1 8f1-1) and other prose works; m peace work, divided between Henri Dunant. prime mover of the Geneva Convention. and Frildtlrie Pussy, founder of the Universal Peace Union.