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candidates, method, party, convention and nomina

NOMINATION (Lat. nominatio, from nomi moire, 01 11111111', from ;lumen, name). In politics, the formal selection and presentation of a can didate for an elective office. In the United States, before the development of political parties, ean dblates fin• office were frequently nominated at private conferences or caucuses of the leading citizens of the community. Sometimes no forum] nominations were made. and candidates were self -announced. Ily 'SOO Ion rt b.. were fairly well organized, and the necessity arose of devis ing sonw means of selecting the candidates for offices. in national elections this was supplied by the Congressional caucus, which assumed the right of choosing Presidential and Vice.Presi dential candidates, and of determining the policy of the patty. (See CAUCUS; CoxvExTiox.) This method lasted until 1824. With the einnintaiee 1114.11t of the revolt against the Cumgressiitnal cau cus several other temporary niethods of nomina tion sprang into existence. These were nomina tion by the State legislatures as a whole, nomina tion by party caucuses of the State legislatures, nomination by State conventions, and nomination by public meetings. All these proved to IN' in effectual and were superseded by the method of national convention, Mild] came permanently into existence between 1S30 and 1840, the first such convention being that of the Anti.Nlasonic in 1832. This has continued to be the ac cepted method of nominating candidates for President and Vice-President. (:enerally the choice of the convention is determinist by the votes of a majority of the delegates; but in the ease of the Democratic Party a two-thirds vote is necessary for a choice. In the nomination of State and ]oral officers the convention has also come to he the recognized method. although in

case of some of the minor offices nominations are frequently made directly by the party voters in the so-called primary elections. The national nominating convention eontsists of a certain num ber of delegates from each State. while local con tentions are made up of delegates representing the several local units of the electoral district. the principle of representation aceording to the tidal population prevailing in both eases. Excep tions to the general rule that candidates for pub lic °thee are nominated by delegate vonvent ion are, first. the old English method of self-announce ment, which exists in communities like some of the Southern States. where praetivally only one political party exists. and where the sueeess of the party is not endangered by a wmihtbpIkity of candidates; second, the method of nomination by primary edeetiwi, where the individual voters directly seleet the candidate without the inter Ve•nti0n of a u-0Wtentio11; and, third. the method of nomination Ily petition, according to which the eandlidate may lie put forward by tiling with the proper officer a paper signed by a certain number of qualified voters. In those parts of the country where the New England tow n meeting exists. local candidates 1111" fre quently inn in nomination by that a.-sembly. In the cities loeal elertive ollieers are almost invariably nominated IT primary caucus or dele gate conventions. Coto.111t Dallinger, Nomina tions for I.:lowlier It filer in the United States ( New York, 18071: Ilrytt.. inicrienn COMM o n wealth, vol. H.. chap. Isis.