OLNEY, lnclimut (1535-1. An \ merlean politician, born in Oxford, Mass. Ile graduated at Brown University in 1S56, studied law in Harvard Law School, was admitted to the Boston bar in 1859, and immediately became associated with Judge Benjamin F. Thomas, whose daughter he married in 1861. Olney rose rapidly in his profession, and was for nmny years chief counsel for the Eastern Railroad, and later for the Bos ton and Maine, as well as for other roads. Until 1893 lie was not particularly active in public affairs. although he was a Democratic member of the Lower House of the Massachusetts Legisla ture in 1874, and was once an unsuccessful can didate for the office of State Attorney-General. In IS93 he was offered the place of Attorney General of the United States by President Cleve land and accepted it. Ills most important act while occupying this office arose out of the great railroad riots of 1894. In .Tune of that year lie applied to the United States Circuit Court for the Northern District of Illinois for an injunction to prevent the strikers from interfering with the United States mails or with interstate commerce. The injunction was granted, it was enforced by United States troops, and the strike was broken.
The action of the Circuit Court was later sus tained by the Supreme Court, and as this was the first instance in which the power of injunction had been used for such a purpose, it furnished a precedent of the utmost importance. Upon the death of Gresham. in 1895, Olney became Secre tary of State, and eontinued to hold that position until the end of Cleveland's Administration in 1897. In this period it fell to him to conduct the negotiations with England growing ont of the disputed boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana. and his famous letter to Bayard. Minister to England, for the information of the English Government as to the American position in the matter, attracted great attention both in this country and in Europe. Previous to the Democratic Convention of 1896. Olney was much talked of as a possible candidate for the Presi dency. Upon the nomination of Bryan and the adoption of the free-silver plank, Olney refused to support the Democratic ticket. In 1900. how ever, lie advised the election of Bryan. and gave as his chief reason for so doing the imperialistie ten dencies of the Republicans.