PETITION AND ADVICE. THE HUMBLE. A w ritten constitution of England during the Pro tectorate. The first Parliament elected ing to the Instrument of Government (q.v.) was di,solved berms,(' it assumed the function of altering the Constitution under which it was called. A second Parliament was summoned by Cromwell. who was in urgent need of money, to meet on September 17, 1656, but nearly one hun dred of its members had to he excluded as hostile to the Protector's Government. After this purge the assembly was ready to carry out Cromwell's wishes, asked him to take the title of King, and laid before him for approval a 'Humble Petition and advice.' I'his may be regarded as practically an amended constitution, although it did not en tirely supersede the Instniment of Government. The Protector declined the royal title, but after sonic alteration the Humble Petition and Advice was passed. and received his assent on May 25, 1657. On the 26th of the following month it was somewhat modified by the 'Additional Petition and Advice,' designed mainly to explain certain doubts and questions which had arisen. As a re
sult of the two instruments the powers of the Council of State were lessened and those of the Parliament were increased. Henceforth the lat ter was to consist of two Houses, and the Pro tector was not again to exclude from sitting therein those who had been legally elected. As sonic compensation for this loss of authority, he was allowed to appoint his successor and to Bond nate the life members of 'the other House,' which was substituted for the House of Lords. The text of the Petition is contained in Gardiner, Constitutional Documents (Oxford, ISS9), and Scobell, Arts and Ordinances (London. 1658). Consult also: Masson, Life of Milton (ib., 1373 94) ; Lingard. Ilistory of England, vol. viii. (ib., 1553). See CROMWELL, OLIVER.