PHRENOLOGY (from Gk. thp0, ph ren, heart, mind + -Nolda, login, account, from Xe-yeep, /eficin, to say). The theory that the mind con sists of a number of independent faculties, each of which has a definite localization in a region of the brain whose size is indicative of the de gree of the faculty resident in it. Franz Joseph Gall (q.v.), an eccentric Viennese physician, an nounced about 1796 the discovery of a system of phrenology. He asserted that he had arrived at his results empirically, having for several years examined the heads of individuals who ex hibited unusual mental or moral endowments. By these examinations lie made out a system of correlations between the topography of the skull and the traits. He further concluded that the size and configuration of the brain was indicated by the size and configuration of the skull. His lectures, begun in 1796, ceased at the order of the Austrian Government in 1802, his doctrines being judged to be materialistic and inimical to the truths of morality and religion. In 1804 he associated with him his favorite pupil, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (q.v.), and the two traveled through Germany, Prussia, and Switzerland to France. In Paris, the French Institute ap pointed a commission to investigate their asser tions. This commission reported favorably upon certain methods of dissection, etc., but regarded their main conclusions as hypothetical. In 1S09 the two began publishing a large work, The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, and of the Brain in Particular, with Observations. upon the Possibility of Ascertaining Several Intellectual and Moral Dispositions of Man and Animals by the Configuration of Their Heads. Gall died in Paris in 1828, and was in terred with the greatest marks of respect and honor. Spurzheim came to America in 1832, but died suddenly shortly after his arrival at Boston.
The fundamental tenets of phrenology are that the brain is the material substratum of mind, that it is a multiplex structure, composed of a definite number (originally 34. now 42) of con stituent organs, each of which is the seat of a particular power of the mind—a 'sentiment,' a 'propensity,' or an 'intellectual faculty.' Further more, phrenology teaches that these 42 organs, or pairs of organs, constitute a series of cones with their apices at the oblongata and their bases at the surface. Each prominence in the skull indicates the size of the organ just beneath it. and in that way the development of the corre lated mental faculty; for this development varies directly with the volume of its brain substrate, and, conversely, the exercise of any faculty pro motes the growth of its brain seat. The 'pro pensities' or 'passions,' situated at the lower and posterior part of the brain, are amativeness. philoprogenitiveness, continuity, adhesiveness or friendship, combativeness, destructiveness. con structiveness, acquisitiveness, secretiveness, in habitiveness, alimentiveness, vitativeness. and
conjugal love. The 'sentiments.' situated at the superior portion of the cranium, are self-esteem, love of approbation, cautiousness, firmness.be nevolenee, veneration, hope, ideality, conscien tiousness, spirituality, and sublimity. The 9ntel lectual faculties,' in the anterior region, are in dividuality. form, space or size, weight or resist ance, color, locality, order, duration, number, tune, language. comparison, causality, wit, imita tion. supernaturality or wonder. human nature. and suavity. In actual diagnosis, the size of the prominence determined the degree of the only when taken in conjunction with other ten dencies, for one faculty might aid or inhibit the function of another.
It is scarcely necessary to say that, as a pre tension to a science, phrenology is related to mod ern neurology as astrology to astronomy, or alchemy to chemistry. It did, indeed, serve a use ful purpose in stimulating the investigation of cortical function, in instilling the principle of the dependence of consciousness upon the cerebrum, and in offsetting the extreme views of men like Magendie and Flourens. who believed that the brain functioned homogeneously like the lungs or the liver. But in the light of modern knowledge phrenology is bad psyehology and bad neurology. Modern psychology does nut regard the mind as a bundle of faculties. Its components are de termined rather by the contributions of the vari ous sense-organs to its structure than by the types of activity by which the psychological self seems to acquire knowledge or express its atti tude. Neurologically, too, there are many dis proofs of phrenology-. Different skulls have a different thickness; the same skull varies in thickness in different regions: prominences on the surface do not necessarily indicate a greater size in the part of the brain beneath ; there is no correlation between brain weight and intelli gence; three-fifths of the gray matter of the cortex is concealed in the sulci; loss of portions of the brain by accident or disease destroys or im pairs the sensory or motor functions connected with some sense department, or some association system, not some 'faculty.' Finally, the whole structure of phrenology falls with the modern investigations of cortical localization by the methods of degeneration, electrical stimulation. medullation, and extirpation. See PHYSIOLOGY.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Sewall, in Examination of Bibliography. Sewall, in Examination of Phrenology (Washington, 18371; Phrenological Journal, xxxi. 4 (New York, 1885) ; Barker, The Nervous System (New York, 1899) ; Donald son, The Growth of the Brain (New York, 1898) ; Hollander, Ilistorischcs Ube). die Localisation der psychischca Tloitiakeiten im Gehire . nut be sonderer Beriieksiehtigung der Lehrer. Galls (Ber lin, 1899).