STOCK-RAISING. The adaptability of the State for grazing has resulted in an extensive dairying industry. In every decade between 1850 and 1900 there was an increase in the number of dairy cows. Only three other States have a larger number. and in only one is the value of the product as great. The yield of milk in 1900 was 32 per cent. greater than in 1890. In 1900 $17, 274,430 was received from the sale of milk, and $9,466,575 from the sale of butter. There was a large gain between 1890 and 1900 in the num ber of 'other neat cattle,' and of mules and asses, but a decrease in horses, swine. and p:u• ticularly sheep. The annual income from poultry products is important. The following table of live-stoek holdings is self-explanatory: A1AN rFACTIMES. Between 1S50 and 1900 Pennsylvania ranked second as a manufacturing State. In the development of the factory sys tem proper as indicated by the amount of power used it easily ranks first. The per cent. of the wage-earning population increased from 6.3 in 1850 to 11.6 in 1900. Between 1S90 and 1900 this increase amounted to 28.7 per cent. The value of manufactured products for 1900 was $1, 834,790,8)i0. Pennsylvania has the advantage of navigation on the ocean. Great Lakes. and the Mississippi River. The :Mississippi system was of great moment in the early period of develop ment, enabling Pennsylvania to supply the fron tier with manufactured products, while the Lake system more recently played a similar im portant part in rendering accessible vast re sources of raw materials. An important network of canals and canalized rivers also figured early. and an elaborate system of railways figured in the later period. Furthernmo•e. the manufactur ing interests have been carefully fostered by a number of societies, which owe much to the ac tivities and inspiration of one man, Benjamin Franklin.
No other industry has contributed so greatly to the reputation of the State as that of iron and steel. Although it developed earlier in other colonies, it was spoken of as 'most advanced' in Pennsylvania as early as 175G. In 1900
it furnished 54 per cent. of the total product for the United States. The localization of the industry is determined by the accessibility to ore and fuel, and consequently until about 1850 the industry was most extensive in the eastern anthracite coal and iron ore district. (Char coal, however, had been universally used prior to 1840..) Since then the Pittsburg district, in the western part. has far surpassed the eastern dis trict. This change is coincident with the sub stitution of bituminous coal and coke and natural gas for anthracite coal. and with the development of the Lake Superior ore region. The pig iron produced in 1900 by the use of bituminous coal and coke amounted to 76 per cent. of the total for the State. The ore used in this part of the State comes from the Lake Superior district. haying the advantage of cheap water transportation. From 1890 to 1900 the increase in iron and steel was 64.2 per cent. Although the industry is largely centered in the towns of Allegheny County, it is important in almost every large town. The manufacture of Bessemer steel began in 1367. Within the last two decade., however, the Bessemer process has been largely supplanted by the open-hearth process.
In foundry and machine-shop products the State ranks first. For instance, it made in 1900 more than one-half the total number of steam locomotives made in the United States. Since 1845 locomotives of Penn.clvania make have been shipped in constantly increasing numbers to other countries. ..\11,o important is the pro duction of iron and steel pipe and electrical ap paratus and =applies. the latter industry having grown up almost entirely -ince 1S90. The same advantages, together with the large railroad in terests of Pennsylvania. have led to the most ex tensive ear-construction and general shop works of steam railroad companies of any State. Al toona. Reading. and Philadelphia are the chief centres of this industry.