PIZARRO, p6-zherii, Rp. pron. ph-thiir'rA, FRANCISCO (c.1470-1541). The conqueror of Pent. He was the illegitimate son of Gonzalo Pizarro, a prominent soldier in the army of the great captain Gonzalo de Cordova. and was born at Trujillo, in Estremadura, Spain, where he passed his boyhood earning his living a. a swineherd. In 1509 he sailed for America with Ojeda, whose fortunes he followed for several years. In 1319 he settled down on a -mall land holding in the new city of Panama. Three years later he formed a partnership with Diego de Al magro (9.v.) and Father Luque to explore the country discovered by Andagoya to the south of the isthmus. A first expedition in 1524 accom plished ID h in:T. and a second in 152(1, with the assistance of Gaspar de Espinosa, threat ened to ruin the partners. Enough of the country seen, however, to prove that it contained much wealth, and so Pizarro landed on the island of not \ ery far from the equator, while Almagro returned for assistance. The suf ferings of the men had been so great, however, that the Governor at Panama sent a vessel to bring them all back. Pizarro refused to embark, and drew un the sand With his sword the famous dividing line. beyond which be declared lay labor, hunger, thirst, sickness, and every kind of danger. but also the chance for glory and heroic achieve ment. Thirteen men crossed to stand by him, while the rest went hack to Panama. Pizarro maintained himself for several months until the arrival of Ali agro. and then they continued to explore the mainland as far as the Gulf of Guaya quil. Convinced that his resources were insuffi cient to embark upon the conquest of this highly civilized region, Pizarro collected irrefutable evidences of its wealth, and then went back to Panama, whence he proceeded to Spain in 1528. Charles V. granted him authority to conquer and govern this territory with the title of Ade lantado. Pizarro enlisted a considerable force, including his four brothers. In 1530 he was bad: at Panama, and in January, 1531, he started for the real conquest of Peru. Land ing at Tumbez, he learned of the weakened con dition of the country, which the struggles between Atahualpa and Huasear, sons of the Inca lluayna. Capac, had made an easy prey for a foreign con queror. At Tumbez Pizarro was joined by Her nando de Soto. From this place Pizarro marched to Cajamarea, which was reached November 15. 1532. There Atahualpa came to meet lihn as a result of• an exchange of friendly messages. Realizing his danger, surrounded as he was by many thousands of native warriors. Pizarro ar ranged that when Atalmalpa had entered the great ventral 41(.10,41 courtyard of the village the Spaniards should suddenly attack the Peru vians from all sides. Atahualpa was secured as a prisoner (November 16, 1532), to be held as hostage for the safety of the force, scarcely a hundred strong. The native forces rapidly dis integrated, and Atahualpa, despite the ransom which he collected, estimated at $17,500.000. was
killed. A hundred and tifty fresh troops came front Panama with Almagro. and the country was rapidly reduced to subjection, except for scattered native hands which kept up the strug gle for independence. Cuzco was occupied in November. 1533, and in January, 1533, Lima, the first of several towns founded by Pizarro, was formally organized. Meanwhile Hernando Pi zarro, the eldest of the brothers, had gone to Spain with the royal fifth of Atahnalpa's ran som. He returned in 1535 with various honors for the conquistadores, the title of Marquis for Francisco, and a grant of the Chilean region for Almagro. The conqueror devoted himself to the development of the country, and was apparently sneece?ling quite as well as an administrator as he had done as a soldier, when the outbreak of the natives under Manco hut (q.v.) in 1536 forced him to take up arms again. In the defense of Cuzco :Juan Pizarro, perhaps the most brilliant lighter of the family, was killed. Ahnagro mean w•hile returned from Chile, and as soon as the na tives were driven off claimed Cuzco as lying With in Lis territory. By a sudden attack he captured Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro, and occupied Cuzco. After repeated negotiations and an inter view which served only to add to the bitterness between the two former partners, the .51arquis agreed to give up his claim to Cuzco on condi tion that his brother Ilernando—Gonzalo having escaped—should be released. As soon as Ilernando had arrived safely at his brother's camp Fran cisco declared war on Almagro. The latter, too old and infirm to mount a horse, directed his army from a litter. On the plain of Las Salinas, in April. 13:38, the Pizarros completely defeated him. Almagro was caught and, his efforts to bribe his guards becoming known, ordered to be strangled or garroted, the recognized method of The Marquis took up his head quarters in Cuzco and again began to develop the mining and other resources of the country. Hernando in 1340 returned to Spain to defend their actions. but the friends of Almagro had won the royal car, and he was imprisoned, re maining for twenty years in nominal confinement at the Castle of Medina del Campo. The Mar quis returned to Lima in 1540, and busied him self with administrative affairs. While at din ner, on Sunday. June 26. 1541, he was surprised by a band of conspirators under Juan de la Rada, who had united to champion the cause of Al magro's son and avenge the father's murder. Deserted by his guests. Pizarro defended himself until mortally wounded, made a cross with his blood on the floor and died as lie kissed it. Preseott's History of Peru is principally an ac count of the career of Pizarro, and gives the standard version of the events of the conquest. It should be compared with Markham, Peru (Cbi(•ago, 1892), which embodies the results of later docunu•ntary studies.