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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 16

Other Instruments
Other Instruments. Apparatus Employed In The Study Of The More Complicated Mental Proc Esses Have, As A Rule, The Special Form Given Them By Individual Investigators. There Are Several Forms Of Memory Apparatus, The Essential Feature Of Which Is The Serial Exposure Of Words, Letters, Etc., To Be Memorized By ...

Other Methods
Other Methods. In Actual Practice A Large Number Of Complicated Combinations Of The De Ductive And Inductive Methods Arc Used In Economies. Induction In Its Quantitative Aspect Gives Rise To The Statistical Method. No School Of Political Economy Has Ever Disputed The Im And Value Of Statistics, And In The ...

Paper
Paper. Improvements In Paper-making Have Been Great Aids In The Development Of Printing. In 1827 The Fourdrinier Paper Machine. That Pro Duced Paper In The So-called Endless Roll Needed For Rapid Newspaper Printing, Was Introduced In The United States. It Made Paper Of More Uni Form Thickness. Of Larger Size. ...

Paulus 1625 54 Potter
Potter, Paulus (1625-54). The Principal Animal Painter And Etcher Of The Old Dutch School. He Was Born At Enkhuizen, Where Lie Was Baptized On November 20, 1625. In 1631 His Father. Pieter Simonz Potter. A Mediocre Painter, Became A Citizen Of Amsterdam, And From Him Paulus Derived His Artistic Training. ...

Pcdlic Records
Records, Pcdlic. In The Broadest Sense, A Public Record Is A Written Account, History, Or Memorandum Of A Fact Or Etent Of General Public Interest, Made By A Public Official In The Perform Ance Of His Duties, And Intended To Be Preserved As Permanent Evidence Of The Matters To Which ...

Period Of Development
Period Of Development. The Stockton And Darlington Railway. 25 Miles Long, Was Opened For Traffic In 1325, The Line Having Been Con Structed Under The Direction Of George Stephen Son, As Chief Engineer. Considering Stephenson's Previous Work With Steam Locomotives On The Kil Lingworth Railway, It Was Not Surprising That ...

Period Of French Pseudo Classicism
Period Of French Pseudo-classicism ( 1750 ] 822). The Weak King Stanislas T'oniatowski Was A Man Of High Culture And Strong Ieesthetie Leanings. A Philosophical Reaction Succeeded Catholicism, And French Ideas Tritunplied. The Cmiscionsness Of Social Evil: Prompted The Writers To Expose Them In Satire And Fable, While Virtuos Ity ...

Petrus Ramus
Ra'mus, Petrus ( Latinized Form Of Picrre De La Llamee) (1515-72). A French Humanist. Phi Losopher, And Mathematician, Born At The Village Of Cuth, In Vermandois, The Son Of A Charcoal Burner Of Noble Descent. In His Twelfth Year He Became Servant To A Rich Student At The College De ...

Physical Characteristics
Physical Characteristics. Physically And Geologically, Quebec Is Divided Into Three Parts. Almost All The Vast Region To The North Of The Saint Lawrence Is A Portion Of The So-called Laurentian Plateau, Which Belongs To The Most Ancient Geological Era (archman). This Is A Barren, Rocky, Undulating Region. The Hills Oft ...

Pickles
Pickles (from Ger. Piihel, Bokel, Pickle, Brine). Although The Term Pickled Is Applied To Animal Substamps, Such As Beef, Pork, And Fish Preserved In Salt, Yet Pickles Are Generally Under Stood To Be The Various Kinds Of Fruits Or Vege Tables Preserved In Vinegar. The Process Em Ployed Is First ...

Picric Acid
Picric Acid (from Gk. /twos, Pikros, Bit Ter), Or Cau.vz(rrtc Auto, One Of The First Organic Dyes That Have Been Prepared By Artificial Processes. It Is Derived From Car• Bone Acid, Or Phenol, By The Action Of Nitric Acid. And Is Therefore Called Also Trinitrocarbolie Acid Or Trinitrophenol. It Is ...

Picts
Picts. An Ancient People Of The Stone Age (long Barrow Period) Inhabiting The Whole Of Great Britain. They Were Doliehocephalic And Of Rather Low Stature (5 Feet 5 Inches), Dark In Com Plexion, And Are Supposed To Have Been Iberians Or, According To Serg,i.long-headed Mediterraneans Front Africa Speaking Celtic. They ...

Piddock
Piddock (of Uncertain Etymology). A Hi Valve Mollusk Of The Genus Pholas. Related To The Ship-worms (q.v.). The Shell Is Thin, White, And Very Hard. And Beset With Ealeareons Inequalities, Eonnected By Tine Transverse Parallel Ridges. Form Ing A Kind Of Rasp, Used By The Animal For Boring A Hole, ...

Pierce
Pierce, Tiers, Franklin (1804-69). The Fourteenth President Of The United States. He Was The Son Of Gen. Benjamin Pierce, A Soldier Of The Revolution And Twice Governor Of New Hamp Shire, And Was Horn At Hillsborough. N. H., On November 23. 1804. He Graduated At Bowdon) College In 1824, Baying ...

Pierre 1622 94 Puget
Puget, Pierre (1622-94). A French Sculptor, Painter, And Architect; Born Proba Bly Near Marseilles. At The Age Of Fourteen He Was Apprenticed To A Wood-carver Named Roman. Employed In The Decoration Of Ships, And At About Eighteen He Went To Florence And Soon After To Rome. His Great Natural Ability ...

Pierre Proudhon
Proudhon, Pierre Irosemt (1809-65). A Noted French Socialist And Polit Ical Writer, Born At Besancon, July 15, 1809. Lle Was Educated At The College Of Besancon, Where He Proved Him4elf An Able Stu Dent ; But On Account Of The Poverty Of His Par Ents He Was Compelled To Leave ...

Pietism
Pietism (from Piety, Of. Piste, Fr. Pijtic.. From Lat. Pietas, Piety, From Pins, Pious). A Name Given In The Latter Part Of The Seventeenth Century To A Religions Movement In Germany, Distinguished By Certain Peculiarities Of Religious Opinion And The Manner In Whieh These Were Manifested. The Name Is Also ...

Piezometer
Piezometer (from Gk. Pirzein, To Press ,uirpov, Metros, Nlea,ure). An Instrument For Measuring The Compressibility Of Fluids. The Name Was Given By Oersted (q.v.) To A Piece Of Apparatus Which He Devised In 1822, And With Which He Was Able To Determine The Compres Sibility Of Water, Mercury, Alcohol, And ...

Pigeon Of
Pigeon (of. Pigeon, Pi Pion, Fr. Pigeon, It. Piecione, Pippione, Pigeon, From Lat. Pipio, Squab, Young Bird, From Pipire, To Chirp, Onomatopoetic In Origin). A Name Applied, Like Dove (q.v.), To All Members Of The Family Columbida-. Al Though Members Of The Group Differ Greatly In Size And Color, With ...

Pigment
Pigment (lai. Pigmentum, From Pingerc, To Paint; Connected With Skt. To Adorn). In Animals, The Coloring Granular Matter In Certain Cells Of The Inner Layer ('derma' Of Vertebrates, 'hypoderma' Of Arthropods) Of The Skin. In Mammals And Man The Pigment Is Brown Or Near Ly Black, That Of The Retina ...

Pilate
Pilate (lat. Pontius Pitt:tits). The Roman Governor Of The Territory Comprising Juda.a, Samaria, And A Large Part Of Idunnea. Which, After The Deposition Of Herod Archelaus In A.d. .6. Became An Imperial Province. His Official Title Was Procurator, And He Resided In The Pr;etorium At Caesarea. Going Up To Jerusalem ...

Pile As
Pile (as. Pit, From Lat. Pi/um, Javelin, Pestle. From Piscre, Pin:5ere, To Pound). In Engi Neering And Architecture, A Long Post Generally Of Wood, But Often Of Iron, Driven Into Soft Soils To Support A Load Or To Form An Inclosure Against The Entrance Of Water. Piles Are Known By ...

Piles
Piles ( From Lit. Pile, Ball), Or Fienton Anoms. Small Tumors Situated Either Within Or On The Verge Of The Anus. They Consist Of Dilated Veins Containing Either Fluid Blood Or A Solid Clot, Covered With Inflamed. Infiltrated Or Permanently Thickened Mucous Membrane. They Are Termed Internal When Situated Above ...

Pilgrim Of
Pilgrim (of. Palcgrin, Prierin, Percgrin, Fr. Micria, Pilgrim, F Rum Lat. Per( Grin118, Foreigner, Pilgrim, From Kreger, Tieing In Foreign Lands. From Per, Through -(- (trier, Field). One Who Visits Sonic Distant Place For A Religious Purpose. The Notion That Particular Localities Possess Special Sanctity Is Widespread. The Gods Of ...

Pillory Of
Pillory (of., Fr. Pilori, From Prov. Cspit Lori. Pillory. From Lat. Speculatorins, Relating To An Observer, From Speculator, Observer, Investiga Tor. Scout, -py, From Speculare, To View, From Specula, Watch-tower. From Spceere. To See). An Obsolete Instrument For The Public Punishment Of Criminals. It Consisted Of Two Parallel Boards, Joined ...

Pilon
Pilon, P«.'iox'. Germain (c.1535-90). A French Sculptor Of The High Renaissance. He Was Born In The Faubourg Saint Jacques, Paris. About 1535. As Is Known By A Document Of 1573. His Father Was A Stone-cutter From Whose Instruc Tion He Passed To That Of Pierre Bontemps. At The Age Of ...

Pilot Of
Pilot (of. Iniote, Fr. Pilot, Probably From Or. Puhd. R, Piloti. R, To Sound With Plummet And Line: Probably Connected With Dutch Iwitioot/, Sounding-lead. Front Forum. 1dutelt Pcylcn, Pijl,n, From .n11/titelt Pegelrn, To Gang.'. From Pc!a1, Ea Paoity C.1 It Ship's Gauge Food. Aldatell Loot, Co1li, Mt. (hr. Lot, As. ...

Pima
Pima, Pe'ina. One Of The Leading Tribes Of The Pintail Stock (q.y.). Before Being Collected Upon Gila River And Salt River Reservations, Arizona, Where They Now Reside. They Roamed, Jointly With The Papago. Who Are Practically The Same People, Over All The Territory From The Mid Dle Gila Southward To ...

Pin Money
Pin-money. In Law, A Sum Of Money Paid Periodically By A Husband To His Wife, To Lie Ex Pended For Dress, Ornament, And Other Personal Expenses. Tlw Origin Of The Term Has Never Been Traced Satisfactorily. But Writers Of Some Authority Assert That It Was Derived From An Anvient Tax ...

Pin As
Pin (as. Pinn, From Ml. Pinna, Pin, Nail, Peak, Lat. Pima, Prima. Feather, Wing. Lin. Pen). Probably The Pin In Its Most Primitive Form Of A Spike, Thorn. Or Fish-bone Was Employed Long Before The Earliest Needle :111.1 Thread, A- A Of Fastening A Garment Together. (see Needle.) Among The ...

Pinakothek
Pinakothek (ger.. From Gk. Rtvaico(h)rl, Ping Kothil, Picture-gallery, From 7(1,4, Innax, Picture, Otsm, Receptacle). Among The 11ellenes, A Term Used To Designate A Room Or Building Near A Temple, For The Preservation Of Pictures Brought As Votive Offerings To The Gods. The Romans Applied It To The Entrance To The ...

Pindar
Pin'dar (gk. Itiv6apos, I'indoros). The Most Famous Of Greek Lyric Poets. He Was Born !war Thebes In Bceotia, C.522 B.c.. And Probably Died After 415, The Date Of His Latest Known Poem. A Conservative In Politic; And Religion, A Singer Of The Athletic Prowess Of The Old .eolian And Dorian ...

Pindemonte
Pindemonte, Ierouro (1753-1828). An Italian Poet, Born At Verona. 11c Was Educated At Modena, And In 1778 He Went To Rome. Where He Was Admitted Into The Ar Cadia. Here He Conceived The Idea Of Translat Ing The Odyssey. With This Idea In View, Lie Went To Naides And Sicily, ...

Pine Barren Beauty Pyxie
Pyxie, Pine Barren Beauty, Flowering Py,ridan Thera Barhulatal. A Small Creep Ing Shrub Of The Natural Order Diapensiaec:r. It Is A Common Plant In New •jersey And North Carolina Upon Moist, Sandy Soil, And Is Esteemed For Its Pink Buds And White, Five-petaled Blossoms, Which Appear In Early Spring. It ...

Pine Insects
Pine Insects. The Insect Fauna Of The Pine Is Very Extensive. In Europe Nearly 300 Species Are Found Upon Trees Of The Genus Pious, And All Hut About 20 Feed 111801 Different Portions Of The Tree. In The United States Nearly 200 Have Been Reeorded, But The Total Number Will ...

Pine As
Pine (as. Pin, From Lat. Pinus, Skt. Pirn, Pine; Connected With (:k. Rlrus, Pitys, 01r. Ith, Grain. Skt. Pill', Sap, Pita, Pine. Pa, To Drink, As. Phone, Plyme, From Lat. Protium, Plum, Prunus, Plum-tree, From Gk. Irpoiipov, Prounon, Proutonon, Plum, Rpcnitom, Prou ?tine, 011111- T Re E ; For The ...

Pineapple As
Pineapple (as. Pinreppl, From Pin. Pine -4- Crppri. Apple). The Fruit Of Auanas Sativus, The Pineapple Plant, Which Grows From 2 To 4 Feet High. Producing A Single Axis To Which Are Attachol Long, Stilt. Rough-edged. Sword-shaped Leaves. The Individual Plant Produces Only A Single Very Fragrant And Palatable Fruit. ...

Ping Yang
P'ing'-yang' (korean P'yrna-, Phyung-, Or Pyring-yang). A Walled City Of Korea, Capital Of The Province Of South Phy6ng-an, And The Most Important City In The Country After Tian Syeng Pu, The Seoul Or Capital (map: Korea, (1 4). It Stands In An Undulating Plain On The Right Bank Of The ...

Pinkney
Pinkney, Wit.m.tm (1764-1322). An American Statesman. Born At Annapolis. Alit Lie Was Educated At King William's Seminary (afterwards Saint John's Colle!re), Studied Law Under Justice Samuel Chase, And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1736. In 1783 He Was A Member Of The Convention To Ratify The Federal Constitu Tion, ...

Pinnipedia
Pin'nipe'dia (neo-lat. Nom. Pi., From Lat. Pilule. Feather, Fin Pes, Foot). A Section Of Ca Rn 'vont, Comprising Sea Is, Ota Ries, And Wal Ruses, In Which The Fore And Hind Limits Are Short And Expanded Into Broad, Webbed Swimming Pad Dles. The Hind Feet Are Placed Very Far Back. ...

Pinochle
Pinochle, (gar., Of Uncertain Ety Mology). A Game Of Cards. Where There Arc Only Two Players, The Game Is Opened By Cutting For Deal, Which May He According To The Highest Card, All Being High, Or By One Of The Players Dealing The Cards Alternately, One At A Time And ...

Pinturicchio
Pinturicchio, (it., Little Painter) (1454-1513). The Name Commonly Ap Plied To Bernardino Di Betto, An Italian Paint Er Of The Umbrian School (early Renaissance). Lie Was Born At Perugia, Where He Studied Under Fio•enzo Di Lorenzo, Later Reflecting Many Of The Mannerisms Of His Contempo Rary Perugino. The Latitude Of ...

Piozzi
Piozzi, Ps•-ut'sta, I\lra. Hester Isncii, Better Known As Airs. Thrale (1741-1821). A Noted Friend Of Dr. Samuel Johnson. She Was Born At 13ndvel, In Carnarvonshire, Wales. In Her Girlhood She Learned Latin, French, And Italian, Wrote For The Saint James's Chronicle. And Was Known Among Her Friends For Her Eleverness ...

Pip
Pip. A Disease Of Poultry. See Rohr. Pipa (neo-lat., From The Native Name Of The Surinam Toad). A Smith American Frog (family Pipid:e), The 'surinam Toad' (pipe Americana), Celebrated For Its Extraordinary Method Of Carrying Its Eggs In The Skin Of Time Hack. It Is A Peculiar, Ugly-looking Creature. The ...

Pipe
Pipe Joints May He Grouped As Calked, Screwed, Flanged And Bolted, And Riveted. The Calked Are Used Almost Wholly For Vitri Fied Clay Pipe, Other Than Drain Tile. And Are Very Largely Used For East-iron Pipe. They Are Sometimes Used For Steel. Pipes With Calked Joints Generally Terminate In An ...

Pipe Rolls
Pipe Rolls. A Name Applied To The Great Or Annual Rolls Of The English Exchequer, Written For The Treasure•. They Are So Called Because Of Their Resemblance To A Pipe, Or On Account Of The Favorite Comparison Of The Public Treasury To A Reservoir, Into Which Every Branch Of Revenue ...

Pipefish
Pipefish. A Name Given Principally To Species Of The Family Syngnathithe, But A1,0 Ap Plied To Various Other Species Which, Like The Above. Have A Long, Tubular Snout. The Body Is Long, Slender, And Covered With Bony Firmly Connected, So As To Form A Sort Of Cara Pace. The Tail ...

Pippi
Pippi, (it Umo, Commonly Called Ottl.j0 Romaxo (1492-1546). An Italian Architect And Painter, The Chief Follower Of Raphael. Lie Was Horn At Rome, And Of His Early Life Little Is Known, Except That At An Early Date He En Tered The School Of Raphael. Vasa Ri Says That Raphael Loved ...

Piquet
Piquet, Itc.'ka' (fr.. Picket, Peg). A Game Of Cards. Of Great Antiquity And Considerable Scientific Possibilities. Its Laws, As Published In Lloyle's Short Tr«itise On The Game Of Piquet In 1744. Remained Iu Force Until The Adoption Of The Rule, Of The Portland Club In 1873. It Is Played By ...

Piracy Ml
Piracy (ml. Piratic, From Lat. Piratieu. Piracy, Fern. Sg. Of Piratieus, From Gk. Retpartritss, Peirulikos, Relating To A Pirate, From Ok.re/parljs, Priraps, Pirate, One Who Attacks Or Tries, From Iretpav, Peiran. To Attempt, Attack, From Irtipa, Peira, Attempt, Attack: Connected With Ir6pos. Poros, Passage. Skt. Par. To Cross, And Ultimately ...

Pisa
Pisa, Uxiversity Dp. ()ile Of The Oldest Euro Pean Universities. Existed At L'isa Teachers Of Law And Nu-divine As Early As The Twelfth Cen Tury, But The Real Beginning Of The University Dates From The Emigration Of A Large Moldier Of Students Eind Teachers From Bologna In 1338 On Account ...

Pisa
Pisa, Wzit. The Capital Of The Prov Ince Of L'isa, In Tuscany, Italy, Situated On Both Banks Of The Arno. Five Miles East Of The Mediter Ranean. 11 Miles Northeast Of Leghorn And 49 Miles West Of Florence (map: Italy. E 4). The Equable Climate Favors Pisa As A Desirable ...

Pisano
Pisano, Niccota (e.1206-78). An Italian Sculptor And Architect, Generally Regarded As The Founder Of The Italian School Of Sculpture. Llis Birthplace Is A Matter Of Dispute, Maintain Ing That He Was A Native Of Apulia, Whence He Brought An Art Formed Upon Classical Models. It Is More Likely, However, That ...

Pisareff
Pisareff, Pe'sit-ryaf, Ivanovitcic (1840-6s). A Famous Russian Critic. Born At Znamenka, He Graduated From The Saint Peters Burg Classical Gymnasium, And Took Up Philol Ogy. A Successful Review ( 1859) In The Dawn, A Magazine For Girls, Caused Him To Turn To Literature. In 1860 He Placed A Translation Of ...

Pisistrat1ts
Pisis'trat1ts ( Lat., From Ak.11eartorparos, Prisistrolos) ?-e.527 N.c.). The Famous Rant Of Athens, Sun Of Hippocrates And Intimate Friend Of The Lawgiver Solon, With Whom Be Was Closely Related 011 His 1110ther's Side, He Re Ceived An Excellent Education, And The Charm Of His Manners As Well As The Generosity ...

Piso
Pi'so. A Roman Family Of The Plebeian Gems Calpurnia. The Agnomina Of The Family Were Frugi And Cresonius. Its More Important Mem Bers Are Named Below: Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, In B.c. 149, As Tribune Of The Plebs, Brought Up The First Law Against Extortion (lex Calpurnia De 1?epetundis); In ...

Pistacia
Pistacia (lat., From Gk. Inarikn, Pistakf', Pistachio-tree, From Pers. Pistu, Pistachio-nut). A Genus Of Trees Of The Natural Order Anacardia Cele, Having, Dicecious Flowers Without Petals And A Dry Drupe With A Bony Stone Which Splits Into Two Valves When Ripe, Exposing The Bright Green Oleaginous Kernel, Which Is Used ...

Pistoia
Pistoia, Pec•sta'ya. Or Pistoja. A City In The Province Of Florence, Italy, Situated At The Foot Of The Apennines, 20 Miles Northwest Of Florence By Rail (map: Italy, F 4). It Is Well Built. And It Is Surrounded By Lofty And Well Preserved Wall. The City Played A Prominent Part ...

Pistol Of
Pistol (of. Pis(ole, From It. Pistola, Pistol, Dagger, From Pistoia, From Lat. Pistoria, A Town In Italy, Near Florence). This Member Of The Sin:mc:inns Group Was Developed Soon After The Invention Of The Wheel-lock, In The Desire To Sup Ply Horse Soldiers With A Firearm. The Result A Weapon Called ...

Pitaka
Pitaka, Pit'a-kil (pali, Basket). Any One Of The Three Divisions Of The Buddhist Scriptures. The Three Pitakas, Collectively Termed Tripitaka Or Pitakattoya, 'basket-triad,' Are The Vinaya Pitaka, Or Basket Of Discipline, The Stittapifaka, Or Basket Of Discourses, And The Abhidhumnia Pitaka, Or Basket Of Metaphysics. The Pi T Om Is ...

Pitcairn Island
Pitcairn Island. Due Of The Most Ca.t Erh The Pssluesian Islands, And The +11(.t Member Of The Low It Lie's In The Paeifie Ocean, In Latitude 25' 3' 8. And Longi Tude 130' Is' W., Is About 2 Miles Long And 1 Mile Broad. And Consists Of :t Mountain Surrounded ...

Pitch
Pitch (assihilated Form Of Ph*, As. Pician, 4:er. Pickets, To Pick; Connected With Eng. Pipe). That. Eharacteristie Of A Sound Which Is Deter Mined By The Rapidity Of The Vibrations Producing It. In Music Then. Are Two Kinds Of Pitch. Ab Solute Pitch, Which Is The Position Of A Lone ...

Pithecanthropus
Pith'ecan'thropus (neo-lat.. From Gk. Irionkos, Piar.kos, Ape, Monkey + Dpepwros, Urrihr'upas, Man). An Organic Genus Combining The Structural Characters Of Man And The Higher Apes Or Monkeys. The Type And Sole Species Is Pithecanthropus Erectus. Founded By Eugene Du Bois In 1894 On A Ealvarium (skullcap), Two Upper Molars, And ...

Pitt
Pitt, Whjaam, First Earl Of Chatham (1708 78). A Famous English Statesman. Often Referred To As The Elder Pitt. He Was Born In West Minster On November 15, 1705, And %vas Edu Cated At Eton And Trinity College. Oxford, Hut He Never Took A Degree. For Lie Was Afflicted With ...

Pitti Palace
Pitti Palace. A Celebrated Florentine Palace Of The Early Renaissance. Now Used A- A Ro‘al Residence. It Is The Largest Palace Except The Vatican In Italy, And One Of The Most Impos Ing In The World. A T:.pieal Horentine Palter Of The Fifteenth Century, Part Fortress, Part Residence, It A ...

Pittsburg
Pitts'burg. The Metropolis Of Western Pennsylvania, The Second City Of The State, And The County Seat Of Allegheny County. It Is Situ Ated At The Junction Of The Allegheny And :mo Nongahela Rivers Where They Unite To Form The Ohio, In Latitude 40° 32' North And Longitude So° 2' 38" ...

Pittseteld
Pitts'eteld. A City. Including Several Vil Lages Within Its Corporate Limits, And The V Seat Of Berkshire County, Mass., 150 Miles Of Boston; On The Boston And Albany And The New York, New Haven And Dartford Railroads (map: Massachusetts. A 3). Its Site In A Hill Girt Valley Of The ...

Pituitary Body
Pituitary Body (lat. Pituitarius, Relat Ing To Phlegm, From Pituita, Phlegm; Connected With .spuerc, Gk. Rr6ely, Ptyein. Lith. Spianti, Lett. Splaut, Ochurch Slay. Prima, Plyuti, Goth. Speitean, 011g. Spfivan, Ger. Spcien, As. Spizran, Eng. Spew, And Ultimately With Eng. Spit). The Bypophysis Of The Brain, Often Called The Pitui Tary ...

Pius
Pi'us. The Name Of Ten Popes. Pits Saint, Pope 140-154. Little Is Known Of His Pontificate; Perhaps The Most Authentic Record Of It Is That Contained In The Muratorian Frag Ment, Which Assigns The Writing Of The Shepherd By Hermas, His Brother, To His Pontificate. See Hernias, Shepherd Of.—pit's Ii., ...

Piute
Pi'ute. A Name Loosely Applied To Vari Ous Small Bands Of Shoshonean Stock (q.v.), Scattered Over The Arid Region Between The Rocky Mountains And The Sierras, From The Colorado Almost To The Columbia, In Nevada, Northwestern Arizona, Eastern California And Oregon, Western Utah, And Southern Idaho. According To Powell, Who ...

Pizarro
Pizarro, P6-zherii, Rp. Pron. Ph-thiir'ra, Francisco (c.1470-1541). The Conqueror Of Pent. He Was The Illegitimate Son Of Gonzalo Pizarro, A Prominent Soldier In The Army Of The Great Captain Gonzalo De Cordova. And Was Born At Trujillo, In Estremadura, Spain, Where He Passed His Boyhood Earning His Living A. A ...

Placenta
Placenta (lat.. Flat Cake). The After Birth—a Spongy Vascular Mass Attached To The Uterus Before The Birth Of A Young Animal And Expelled After Labor Is Completed. It Is The Structure That Unites The Foetus To The Wall Of The Maternal Uterus. It Occurs In All Mammals Ex Cept The ...

Or Hall Marks Plate
Plate Marks, Or Hall Marks. The Legal Impressions Made In Great Britain On Watch Cases, Jewelry, And Gold And Silver Plate, After The Material Has Been Assayed At The Various Govern Ment Assay Offices. In The Ease Of Jewelry The Marks Are, With A Few Exceptions, Optional. There Are Four ...

Or Indian Fig Prickly
Prickly Pear, Or Indian Fig (01)//dti(t). A Genus Of 200 Or More Species Of Cacti, Fully Half Of Which Occur In The Southwestern United States. Their Fleshy. Spiny Or Hairy Stems, Gen Erally Formed Of Compressed Or Cylindrical Ar Ticulations, Are Leafless, Except Upon Younger Shoots, Which Produce Small, Cylindrical, ...

Or Lelcolise Quinoline
Quinoline, Or Lelcolise, An Or Ganic Base To Which Many Vegetable Alkaloids Are Chemically More Or Less Closely Related. It May Be Obtained By The Distillation Of Quinine, Cinchonine, Or Similar Substances, With Caustic Potash. It Occurs, Together With Isoquinoline, A Substance Of The Same Molecular Composition As Quinoline, In ...

Or Mozam Bique Portuguese
Portuguese East Africa, Or Mozam Bique. A Colonial Possession Of Portugal, On The Eastern Coast Of Africa. Bounded By German East Africa On The North, The Indian Ocean (mainly The Strait Of Mozambique) On The East, Zululand On The South, And The Transvaal, Rhodesia, The Central Africa Protectorate, And Lake ...

Or Peoples Party Populist
Populist Party, Or People's Party. A Political Party In The United States, Organized At Cincinnati In May, 1891, By A National Con Vention Composed Chiefly Of Representatives Of The Agricultural And Industrial Classes. The Party Grew Out Of The Movements Previously Inaugurat Ed By The "grangers" And The "farmers' Alli ...

Or Pillar Saint
Pillar Saint, Or Srmtre. One Of A Re Markable Class Of Ascetics. Chiefly Of Syria. Who. With A View To Separating Themselves More Com Pletely From Earth And Fellow-men. Took Up Their Abode On The Tops Of Pillars. And Remained Thus Without Descending To Earth, Exposed To All The Variations ...

Or Pocock Pococke
Po'cocke, Or Pocock, Euwarti (1604.9i) . An English Oriental Scholar. Ile Was Horn At I In Ford. Graduated B.a. From Corpus Christi Col Lege, Oxford. In 1622. And Received Priest's Orders In 1639. Ile Early Turned His Attention To Orien Tal Studies And Had The Best Teachers That England Could ...

Or Polaris Pole Star
Pole Star, Or Polaris. The Nearest Con• Spicuous Star To The North Pole Of The Heavens. The Second-magnitude Star Whieh At The Present Time Goes Under The Name Of Pole Star Is The Star A In The Constellation Of Ursa Minor. By Examin Ing Attentively The Movements Of The Stars ...

Or Porsenna Porsena
Porse'na, Or Porsenna, Lars. In The Early And Uncertain History Of Rome, A Powerful King Of Clusium (now Chiusi), In Etruria. Ac Cording To The Legend Told By Livy, When Tarquin The Proud Was Expelled From Rome He Sought The Help Of His Etruscan Kinsmen In Veii And Tar Quinii, ...

Or Puebla De Zaragoza
Puebla, Or Puebla De Zaragoza.. Formerly Puebla De Los Angeles. The Capital Of The State Of Puebla, :mexico, And The Largest City Of The Republic Next To The National Capital. It Is Situated On The Atoyac River, 60 Miles Southeast Of Mexico City, At An Elevation Of 7200 Feet Above ...

Or Pylos Pyliis
Py'liis, Or Pylos (lat., From Gk. Ilaos). An Ancient Town Of Messenia, In The Peloponnesus, On The Promontory Of Coryphasium At The North Ern Entrance To The Bay Of Pylus (navarino). Strabo Says That It Was Originally Inland At The Foot Of Mount _egaleum, And That Coryphasium Was Only Settled ...

Or Quinina Quinine
Quinine, Or Quinina (neo-lat. Quinines, From Neo-lat., Sp., L'ort., Quichua Quina, Qui Nine). A White Amorphous Or Crystalline Powder With A Very Bitter Taste, Alkaline, Very Faintly Soluble In Water, But Soluble In Alcohol, Dilute Acids, Ether, Or Chloroform, And Derived From The Bark Of Cinchona Ealisaya, Cinehona Rubra, And ...

Or Rackets Racquets
Racquets, Or Rackets (fr. Raquette, From Of. Rackete, Rachette, Rasqucte, Rasquette, From Sp. Raqueta, Racquet, Battledore, From Ar. Raliat, Palm Of The Hand). A Modern Legitimate Descendant Of The Old Game Of Tennis (q.v.). It Is Probably Of British Origin And Arose About The Beginning Of The Nineteenth Century, Being ...

Or Railroads Railways
Railways, Or Railroads. Roads Upon Which Lines Of Rails Are Laid To Facilitate The Movement Of Vehicles For The Carriage Of Freight And Passengers. When Employed Without Qualifi Cation The Term Railway Or Railroad Is Generally Understood To Indicate A Road Consisting Of Two Parallel Lines Of Rails Or Of ...

Or Raleigh Ralegh
Ralegh, Or Raleigh, Sir Walter (c.1552-1618). An English Courtier, Navigator, And Explorer. He Was The Son Of Walter Ralegh Of Fardell, Near Plymouth, In Devonshire, And Studied For A Time At Oxford. In 1569 He Was In The Huguenot Army At The Battle Of Jarnac, And He Seems To Have ...

Or Rasle Rale
Rale, Or Rasle, R;11. Strtasnen (1657 1i24). A .jesuit Missionary In North America. He Was Born In Franche-comtc1, Became A Jesuit Novice At Dole In 1675. Was An Instructor Fro::: 1677 To 1684 At Carpentras And Nimes, And In 1639 Went To Canada As A Missionary. He Was Stationed For ...

Or Refunders Readjusters
Readjusters, Or Refunders. The Name Applied To A Political Party In Virginia• From 1878 To 1885, Which Favored The `readjustment' Or Sealing Down Of The State Debt. At The Close Of The Civil War The Public Debt Of Virginia Amounted To About $41,000,000, Which Was In Creased By The Extravag,anee ...

Or Spinal Caries Potts
Pott's Disease, Or Spinal Caries. A Tuberculous Inflammation Of The Bodies Of The Spinal Vertebra., Named After Dr. Percival Pott (q.v.), The Surgeon Who First Accurately De Scribed The Condition And Its Nature. In This Affection As The Tubercular Tissue Replaces The Normal Bone-tissue Of The Vertebn:-e, Softening Re Sults ...

Or Squatter Sovereign Ty
Popular Sovereignty, Or Squatter Sovereign Ty. Terms In American History Used Interchangeably By Many Writers And Having Reference To The Right Of The Inhabi Tants Of A Territory To Regulate Their Internal Affairs In Their Own Way Without The Intervention Of Congress. Strictly Speaking, Time Term Popular Sovereignty Was Applicable ...