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Plymouth

town, west, sound, plym, mouth, england, buildings and called

PLYMOUTH, pilm'ilth. An important sea port. Parliamentary and county borough, in the southwest of Devonshire, England, 231 miles west-southwest of London (Map: England, B 6). It stands in the Bight of Plymouth Sound be tween the'estuaries of the Plym and Tamar. To the west is Stonehouse, a township and coast guard station, and still farther west is Devon port (q.v.), the great naval and military station. United by continuous lines of houses, they form an aggregation known as 'The Three Towns,' which constitutes one of the most important ports in England. Plymouth proper, which cov ers an area of one square mile, may be called the city, and Devouport the west end; while Stonehouse is an intermediate district, contain chiefly factories, barracks. victualing yards, hospitals, and other institutions. Plymouth ex tends from Mill Bay on the west to the mouth of the Plym on the east. Its site is somewhat rugged and uneven; an eminence forming the suburbs runs along its northern side, and another eminence, partly occupied by the citadel, fronts the Sound. The chief buildings are the Royal Hotel, comprising an immense inn, assembly rooms. a theatre, and the atheneum; the public library, containing in its C'ottonian collection 301) sketches by the old Italian masters; Saint .Andrew's Church, the tower of which dates from 1490: and Charles Church (1646-58), dedicated to 'Saint Charles the Martyr.' There are several important educational establishments, some of which are endowed, and many charitable insti tutions. The Guildhall and municipal buildings form a group of handsome Gothic buildings. The city contains an arsenal. a dock-yard, and other Government buildings, and a marine biological laboratory. Mill Bay and Sutton Pool are two small inlets of the Sound, in which lie all the merchant vessels bound for Plymouth proper. Between these inlets, and running along the shore, is the eminence or high plateau of land called the Hoe, embellished with interesting mon uments. From this ridge, whence the approach of the Spanish Armada is said to have been first descried, magnificent shore and sea views may be obtained. Its eastern end is occupied by the citadel. which commands the entrance of the Cutwater (the lower estuary of the Plym) and of Sutton Pool. Mill Bay on the west is so deep that vessels of 3000 tons can lie at the pier at low water. The principal industries are ship building and fisheries: the manufactures are un important, the chief being of chemicals: but as a naval station, the centre of the Devonshire and Cornwall trade, and as a holiday and health resort, Plymouth holds a prominent position. It

carries on a considerable trade with the West Indies, South America, Australia, the Cape, the Baltic. and the Mediterranean. It has fine clocks, harbors, and extensive quayage. and a magnifi cent breakwater completed in 1S41 protects the Sound with its spacious inner anchorage. The principal exports are lead, tin, copper, and gran ite: imports, agricultural products and timber. Plymouth was the first English town incorpo rated by Act of Parliament, its charter dating from November 12, 1439. It owns the oldest municipal water-works in England, originated in 1585 by Sir Francis Drake, the navigator, then Mayor of the town. It owns also profitable real estate, the Royal Hotel already mentioned, abat toirs. markets, a refuse destructor, the heat of which is utilized to generate electric light and power, electric tramways. suburban artisans' dwellings connected by tramways which carry workmen to any part of the town for a penny. baths, and wash-houses, and maintains free libra ries, technical school. museum and art gallery, the Hoe Park and pleasure grounds, a hospital ship, a borough hospital, r.nd a lunatic asylum. The population of 'The Three Towns' in 1901 was 182,971, having tripled since 1821; that of Ply mouth proper was 107.509.

Plymouth. described by Leland as being, in the reign of Henry 11., "a mere thing, an inhabita tion of fishars," was called by the Saxons Tame o•worth (town on the Tamar) ; after the Con quest it was called Sutton ( south town) : and it was not till the reign of Henry VI. that it re ceived the name of Plymouth (mouth of the Plym). During the fourteenth and fifteenth cen turies it was frequently attacked. and set on fire by the French, and in 1512 an act was passed for the strengthening of its defenses, which since then have been greatly increased, until now the entire shore of the Sound is well defended by cannon, while a cordon of inland forts. construct ed at immense cost, surrounds the Three Towns at a distance of from two to three miles. Ply mouth witnessed the departure of Drake's noted expedition to circumnavigate the world in the reign of Elizabeth. and her fleet went forth from here to encounter the Spanish Armada. The Mayflower, when she sailed for America, landed at Plymouth, whence she finally set sail on Sep tember 6. 1620. During the Civil War the town successfully sustained a siege of four years for the Parliamentary cause, and was the first large town to proclaim William of ()range King. Consult: Worth, History of Plymouth, from, the Earliest Period to the Present Time (Plymouth, 1871) ; Williams, Plymouth. (ib., 1898).