Home >> New International Encyclopedia, Volume 16 >> Plague to Polybius

New International Encyclopedia, Volume 16

Plague
Plague (lat. Plaga, Plague, Destruction, In Jury, Blow, From Plangerc, Connected With Gk. Rxha-cretv, Plessein, Lith. Plakti, To Strike, And Pos Sibly With Goth. Itokan, Ohg. Finohkon, Ger. Finchen, To Curse), Pestis; Pestis Btt0nica: Pestis Inge Inalis ; Builunic Plague; Black Death. An Acute Infectious Disease Caused By The Presence ...

Plagues Of Egypt
Plagues Of Egypt. A Series Of Miracu Lous Signs And Judgments By Which, According To Exodus Vii. S-xi. 10; Xii. 29-xiv. 26-29, Moses And Aaron Proved That They Were Messengers Of Yahweh, Israel's God, And Punished The People Of Egypt For The King's Obstinate Refusal To Let The Israelites Go ...

Plain Chant
Plain Chant. A Term Applied To The Ec Clesiastical Chant Of The Roman Catholic Church. This Style Of Music Was Used In The Church From The Earliest Times. It Has Certain Characteristics Which Distinguish It From Any Other Known Music. All The Melodies Have A Stateliness And Quiet Dig Nity ...

Plain Or
Plain (or Plain, From Lat. Planum. Level Ground, Plain, Nett. Sg. Of Planus, Level, Even; Connected With Lith. Pldnas, Fiat, Opruss. Threshing-floor. Olat. Patina, Gk. Randyn, Warne', Flat Of The Band, 7:-nci.e, Plus. Plain, Rxavay. Planar, To Wander, Oho. Flail. 1:er. Flock Lint. 011g. R/uor, Ger. Flue, As. Yo,, Eng. ...

Plane
Plane (fr. Plane, From Ml. Piano, Plane, From Lat. Planare, To Plane, Level, From Piano; Level, Flat, Plane, Plain). \ Tool Used For Render Ing The Surface Cif Wood Sn Ooth And Level. It Consists Of An Oblong Block Of Wood Or Metal With An Opening T 111'0101 The Centre; ...

Plane Table
Plane-table. An Instrument Used To Fill In The Details Of Topographical Work (see Suit 11.v1no), And, On Account Of The Ease And Rapidity With Which It Can Be Operated. Popular Where Only A Moderate A Pproaell '10 Accuracy Is Re The Planc-table Consists Essentially Of A Mounted Draw•ing-board Bearing An ...

Plane Of
Plane (of.. Fr. Plane, From Lat. Platoons, From Gk. Rxdravos, Plane Tree, From Axcuric, Phi Gs, Flat, Lith. Pietas, Skt. Pram, Broad, From Proth, To Spread Out; So Called From The Broad, Flat Leaves), Pletanns. The Only Genus Of The Nat Ural Order Plataname, Tall, Large Trees Of Which There ...

Planetoids
Planetoids (from Gk. 71-xamirns, Plann Wanderer, Wandering Star• Planet. ± Egos, Color, Form), Or Asteroids. A 1111111erous Group Of Very Small Planets Which, With One Exception, Travel In Orbits Lying Between Those Of Mars And Jupiter. Till The First Year Of The Nineteenth Century They Remained Undiscovered; But For Some ...

Planets
Planets. Those Solid Spherical Bodies Which Belong To Our Solar System, And Revolve In Elliptic Orbits Round The Sun. The Name Planet Is Of Considerable Antiquity, And Was Applied To These Dependents Of The Sun To Dis Tinguish Them From The Other Luminous Bodies Which Stud The Sky And Present ...

Planimeter
Planim'eter (from Lat. Planum, Level Ground, Plain + Ble R Po V, Metron, Measure). An Instrument For Automatically Measuring The Areas Of Maps And Plans. The First Usable Plan Imeter Seems To Have Been Constructed In 1814 By A Bavarian Engineer Named Hermann (1785 18i1 ). This Was Followed By ...

Plankton
Plankton (neo-lat., From Gk. Irxcrytcros, Pl«nktos, Wandering. From Irxcfletp,plazein, To Wan Der). A Collective Term For The Free Floating Or Swimming Organisms In Oceans, Lakes, Or Rivers. The Oceanic Plankton Is More Interesting And Im Portant Than That Of Lakes And Of Rivers, Inasmuch As It Forms The Basis For ...

Plant Breeding
Plant-breeding. The Art Of Improving Plants By Crossing And Selection. In General Plants Tend To Reproduce Their Main Characters Unchanged, Hut Their Long-recognized Tendency To Vary Has Prompted Much Experimentation, Which, With The Undirected Variation, Has Resulted In The Production Of Many Cultivated Varieties, Strains, And Races. In Some Cases ...

Plasmolysis
Plasmol'ysis (neo-lat., From Gk. Plasma, Formation, Molded Figure + X6o-ts, Lysis, Resolution, From Mew, Lyein, To Loose), The Shrinkage Of The Protoplasm, Due To The Extrac Tion Of Water From The Cell Sap By A Solution Of Higher Osmotic Pressure In Contact With The Cell. The Mature Plant Cell Consists ...

Plaster Of Paris
Plaster Of Paris. _\ Cementing Stance Which Is Prepared By Partial Calcination Or Dehydration Of Gypsum. This Mineral Is Cally A Hydrated Sulphate Of Lime And Contains 46.6 Per Cent. Of Sulphuric Acid, 32.5 Per Cent. Of Lime. And 20.9 Per Cent. Of Water. Ing To The Formula 2hp. When ...

Plasters As
Plasters (as. Plaster, Olig. Pflastar, Ger. From Of. Plus! Re, Plaietre, Em Piastre, Fr. Phitrc. Emphit Re, From Lat. On Plastrum, From Gi:. Garnaorpov, (it/phis/run, Empiaston, Plaster, From Emplassein, To Plaster, From Iv, En, In + Plassein, To Form). Tenacious Preparations For External Application, Solid At Ordinary Temperatures, But Pliable ...

Plastids
Plastids (front Gk. Rnacr-r6s, Plastos, Mold Ed, From Z-xciacretv, Plasscin, To Form) , Or Chromato Probes. Living Organs Of The Cell, Usually Im Bedded In The Cytoplasm, Of Various Form, Having Functions Differing According To Their Ultimate Mode Of Development. They Differ From The Nucleus In Form And Composition, And ...

Plateau
Plateau, Pla-to' (fr., Diminutive Of Plat, Plate). An Elevated Area Of Fairly Level Land With Approximately Horizontal Strata. The Chief Difference Between A Plain And A Plateau Is That The Plateau Is Higher: But This Very Difference In Altitude Gives The Streams A Chance To Cut Deeper Valleys Than In ...

Platen Hallermund
Platen-hallermund, Plit'ten Hfiller Mnnt, August, Count Von (1796-1835). A Dis Tinguished German Poet, Born At Anshach. Edu Cated In The Corps Of Cadets And The Pages' Institute At Munich, He Entered The Bavarian Army In 1814, Took Part In The Campaign Of 1815, But, Wearied Afterwards By The Dreary Monotony ...

Platinum
Platinum ( Neo-lat., From Platina, From Sp. Ptatina, Platinum, From Plata, Silver, Plate, From Pinto. Fiat, From Gk. Platys, Fiat, Wide, Broad ; Connected With Lith. /thrills, Broad, Skt. Prthu, Wide, From Praflr, To Spread Nut). A Metal Lie Element. The Existence Of Which Was First Made Km Wn In ...

Plato
Pla'to (lat., From Gk. Hxo.rwp, Platon) (c.427-347 N.c.). A Greek Philosopher, Born Probably May 7. B.c. 427, On The Island Of ..eg.ina, A Dependency Of Athens. Where His Father Held An Estate. His Real Name Was Aristocles. His Father Claimed Descent From Codrus: His Mother, Peric Tione. From Solon. The ...

Plattdeutsch
Plattdeutsch, Pliit'doich, Or Low Sax On. The Language Spoken In Northern Germany From The Border Of Holland To The Frontier Of Lithuania. It Is Distinguished On The One Hand From Low Franconian, Which Includes The Lan Guage Of Holland, Dutch Proper (see Duten Language), And, On The Other Hand, From ...

Plattsburg
Platts'burg. A Village And The County Seat Of Clinton County, N. Y., 167 Miles North By East Of Albany; On Lake Champlain, At The Mouth Of The Saranac River, And On The Dela Ware And Hudson And The C'hateaugay Railroads (map: New York, G 1). It Is Picturesquely Situ Ated ...

Platyhelminthes
Plat'yhelmin'thes (neo-lat. Nom. Pl., From Gk. 7rxcrth. Platys, Flat, Broad + 6.).los, Helmins, Worm), Or Platoda. A Phylum Of In Vertebrate Animals (flatworms), Easily Recognized By The Absence Of A Body-cavity And Anus. There Is No Blood System, The Results Of Digestion Being Carried To The Different Parts Of The ...

Plautus
Plau'tus, Tat S N.'.ccius. The Greatest Comic Poet Of Ancient Rome. Lie Was Born E.254 Ba:. T Sarsina, A Village Of Umbria. It Is Proba Ble That He Came To Rome While Still A Youth, And There Acquired A Complete Mastery Of The Latin Language In Its Most Idiomatic Form, ...

Plea Of
Plea (of. Plait, Plaid. Play. Fr. Plaid, From Lat. Placitum, Decree, Suit, Plea, Opinion, From Placere, To Please). In Common-law Pleading, The Defendant's Answer Or Defense, Consisting Either Of A Denial Of The Facts Alleged In The Declaration, Or A Confession That They Are True And A Statement Of New ...

Pleading
Pleading ( From Plead, From Of., Fr. Plaid Cr, From Of. Plait. Plaid, Play, Fr. Plaid, Plea ). As A Generic Term, The Written Allegation Of Facts Upon Which A Party To Any Legal Proceeding Founds His Claim Or Demand Or His Answer Or De Fense Thereto. Used In A ...

Pleasonton
Pleasonton, Pleeon-t On. Alfred ( 1824 :17). An American Soldier, Born In Washington, I. Ile Graduated At \vest Point In 1844, And Was Assigned To The Dragoons, With Whom Be Served On Time Frontier And In Mexico. In 1855 He Was Promoted To A Captaincy, And In Feb Ruary. 1862, ...

Plebeians Of
Plebeians (of. !dairies', Fr. Ph'boicn, From 1-nt. P/ehrius. Relating To Time Common Peo Ple. Film] Plebs. Common Connected With Picni/..is Full, K. Auarxivac, Pimplr'nei. Ski, Per, Pre*, To Till, Nt'horc1 Slay. Wing, Olr. Bin, God]. Fulls, 011g. Fob, (:er. Roll. As., Eng. Full). The Common People Of Rome; One Of ...

Pledge Of
Pledge (of. Plcge, Fr. &of., Oil Pieggio, Pledge; Of Uncertain Etymology, Perhaps Ultimate Ly From Lat. Prwberc, Prwhiberc, To Offer, From Pew, Before Babere, To Have). Personal Erty Delivered By One Person To Another To Be Held By Him As Security For The Performance Of An Obligation, Usually The Payment ...

Pleiades
Ple'iades (lat., From Gk.iixfaises,hkylaisfs), In Greek Legend, To The Most General Account, The Seven Daughters Of Atlas And Pleione, The (laughter Of Oceanus. Of Their Story There Scents To Have Been No Canonical Version, But Various Local Legends Were Adopted By Different Writers. According To Sonic They Committed Sui Cide ...

Pleistocene Period
Pleistocene Period (from Gk.rneicrros, Pleistos, Most, Superlative Of Rox6s, Pops, Much Ma My Scurf's, Kainos, New). The Name Duced By Sir Charles Lyell To Designate That Period Of Geologic Time Which Intervened Between The End Of The Tertiary And The Beginning Of The Historic Period. Within The Last Few Years ...

Plesiosaurus
Ple'siosau'rus ( Nen-lat.. From Gk. Wkijolos, Ple•sios, Near Craiipot, Sauros, Lizard). A Peen Liarly Iuter•esting Fossil Marine Reptile Of The Order Sauropterygia, Found In The Liassie Rocks Of Europe. The Order Sauropterygia Com Prises A Number Of Reptiles Which Began As Small Amphibians In The Trias And Culminated In The ...

Pleurisy
Pleurisy (fr. Plcuresic. From Lat. Pleuri Sis, Pleuritis, From Gk. Rxetuarts, Pleurisy, From 7rxevpd, Pleura, Rib). An Inflammation Of The Pleura, The Serous Membrane Investing The Lungs. This Membrane, Like The Pericardium (q.v.) And The Peritoneum (q.v.), Consists Of Two Layers, A Visceral And A Parietal, The Former Closely At ...

Plevna
Plevna, Pl6vi3. Or Pleven. A Town Of Bulgaria. Situated On A Tributary Of The Danube And On The Sofia-varna Railway, About 85 Miles Northeast Of Sofia (map: Balkan Peninsula. E 3). The Town Has A Considerable Trade In Cattle And Wine. It Is Connected By A Branch Railway Line With ...

Pliny
Pliny Ni Younger (nalus Plinius C-eci Lh S Secendus). A Nephew Of Pliny The Elder, And Sun Of Gains Ca.cilins. Ile Was Born At Novum Commit T Como 1, Am. 62. He Was Still Young When He Lost His Father, And Was Adopted By His Uncle. Under Whose Care, And ...

Pliny The Elder Gaits
Plin'y The Elder. Gait's Plinifs Secun Drs. The Author Of The Celebrated Historic Natu Rails. Ile Was Horn In The North Of Italy, Probably At Novum Comum (conio), A.d. 23. Whether It Was His Birthplace Or Not, Novum Comum Was Certainly His Family's Place Of Residence, Since He Had Estates ...

Plongee
Plongee, Plon'av ? Fr., Plunged). In Military Science, A Term Meaning A Slope Toward The Front. The Plonge'e Of A Shell In Artillery Fire Is That Part Of The Curve Of The Trajectory Between Its Highest Altitude And The Point At Which It Strikes The Earth. In Fortification The Plong5e ...

Plover Of
Plover (of. !gorier, Fr. Plurier, From Ail. Piururias, Plover, From Lat. Muria, Rail), Front Pluerc, To Rain; Connected With Gk. Rxeiv, Mein, Skt. Plu, Pro, To Swim, And Ultimately With Lith. Pinsti, Lett. Pindef, As, Ficospoi, 0iig. Ger. Jlies.sen, To Flow•; So Called Because The Bird Appears During The Rai ...

Plowing As Plow
Plow, Plowing (as. /doh, Ohg. Pfluoh, (der. Pflug, Plow; Connected With Longobardic P/oruni. And Possibly With Gk. 7x(oxiv, Glorhin, Projecting Point). In All Countries Where Agri Culture Is In An Advanced State, The First Agricul Tural Operation In Order And Importance Is The Breaking Up Of The Soil By Inverting ...

Plum Insects
Plum Insects. The Most Notable Of The Insects Which Damage The Plum In The United States Is The Plum Eureulio (conotrachelas Now Phar). A Species Which For Many Years Has De Stroyed Almost The Entire Crop Over Large Sec Tions Of The Country. It. Is A Small, Rough, Gray Ish ...

Plum As
Plum (as. Plume, Plyme, Ohg. Pflumo, Pfrii Ma, Ger. Pfluainr, From Lat. Prunum, Plum, Pruna. Plum-tree. From Gk. Rpofivov, Prounon, Rpodiavov, Pro Innon, Plum, Rpotirn, Proune; Rpoliavn, Proumm', Plum-tree). Small Trees Or Shrubs Be Longing, To The Genus Primus, And Extensively Cultivated As Orchard Fruits In Temperate Regions. The Fruit ...

Pluralism
Pluralism (from Plural, Of. Plural, Fr. Pluriel, From Lat. Pluralis, Relating To Ninny, Front Plus. Olat. Pleor, More; Connected With Gk. Rxelum, Pleion, More. Roxos, /roa Much. Many, Skt. Mime, Opers. Pant, Otr. Il, Goth., Ohg. Flit, Ger. Rich, As. Fedu, Archaic Eng. Feel, Many, And Ultimately With Eng. Full). ...

Plutarch
Plu'tarch (gk. Moirrapxos, Plouturchos) (c.46-c.125 An Encyclopaedic Writer And A Charining Type Of The Greek Gentleman And Scholar Of Roman Times. He Was Born At C'hx Ronea. In Bceotia, The Country Of Hesiod And Pin Dar. To Whom He Often Alludes. His Writings In Troduce Us To A Pleasant Circle ...

Pluto
Plu'to (lat., From Nk. Tixourcol, Mouton, From Irnoii.ros, P/olitos, Wealth). The Boman Name For The Greek God Of The Lower World, Properly Tiades. Two Conceptions May Lie Distinguished. (me Chiefly Prominent In Poetry Represents Him As The Grim And Implacable Ruler Beneath The Earth: An Enemy Of All Life, Invisible, ...

Plymouth
Plymouth, Pilm'ilth. An Important Sea Port. Parliamentary And County Borough, In The Southwest Of Devonshire, England, 231 Miles West-southwest Of London (map: England, B 6). It Stands In The Bight Of Plymouth Sound Be Tween The'estuaries Of The Plym And Tamar. To The West Is Stonehouse, A Township And Coast ...

Plymouth Brethren
Plymouth Brethren. A Religious Sect Which Sprang Into Existence In The British I-lands During The First Half Of The Nineteenth Eentury, And Has Extended Itself Throughout The British Dominions And In Certain Parts Of The Continent Of Europe, Particularly Among The Protestants Of France, Switzerland. And Italy, A Ml In ...

Plymouth_2
Plymouth. A Town. Port Of Entry, And The County-seat Of Plymouth County, Mass., 37 Miles Southeast Of Boston; Extending For 18 Miles Along Plymouth Harbor, An Arm Of Massachusetts Bay, And Along Cape Cod Bay, And On The New York, New Haven And Hartford Railroad (slap: Mas Sachusetts, F 4). ...

Pneumatic Dispatch
Pneumatic Dispatch (lat. Pnewniati Eus. From (ilk. Vevicartk6s, Perimatikos, Relating To Wind Or Air, From Rveiiiza, Pneutna. Air, Wind, Spirit). The Name Given To A Method Of Sending Mail Matter. Telegraphic Dispatches, Parcels. Etc.. Through A Tube By Means Of Air Pressure. The Matter To Be Transported Is Placed In ...

Pneumatic Gun
Pneumatic Gun. A Gun In Which The Expansive Force Of Air Under Pressure Is Employed Action Is Essentially The Same In All Pneumatic Tools Of This Type, And It Will Be Sufficient To De Scribe The Mechanism In One Of Them Only. And For This Purpose The Hammer Will Perhaps ...

Pneumonia
Pneumonia, N11-mn'n'fn Neo-la T., From Gk. Rvevnovia, Disease Of The Lungs, From Pneilmon, Lung, From Ryas, Pectin, To Breathe). An Inflammation Of The Substance Of The Lung. There Are Three Well-defined Forms: Acute Lobar Pneumonia, Broncho-pneumonia, And Chronic In Terstitial Pneumonia. Acute Pneumonia Is Called Lobar Because It In Volves ...

Pnyx
Pnyx, Niks (lat., From Gk. He Fl. A Hill And Ancient Place Of Assembly, Whose Exact Loca Tion Is Not Known, In Athens. Po (anciently Podus And Eridming). The Largest River Of Italy, Flowing Through Piedmont And Lombardy. And Along The Southern Borders Of Venetia. It Rises On Nonte Viso, ...

Po Merania
Po 'mera'nia ( Ger. Pom1viern, Ow Me'rn). A Province Of Prussia, Bounded By The Baltic Sea On The North. West Prussia On The East. Brandenburg On The South, And Meck Lenburg-schwerin And Meeklenburg-strelitz On The West (map: Prussia. F 2). Its Area Is 11.028 Square Miles. The Surface Is Mostly ...

Poaching
Poaching Frau. The Law Of Fisheries Is Not Uniform In The 'united Kingdom. In England The General Rule Is That Any One Of The Public May Fish Freely In The Sea And In All Navigable Rivers; And Where He Can Fish He Can Catch Salmon As Well As Every Other ...

Poaching Of
Poaching (of. Pochcr, From Pochc, Pocket, Probably From Ir. Pee, Gael. Puce, Pocket, Or Less Probably Connected With Of. Pot-her, Poacher, To Thrust, Hit, And Ultimately With Eng. Pochard, Which See For Etymology). In English Criminal Law, The Act Of Unlawfully Trespassing On Another's Lands For The Purpose Of Killing ...

Pocahontas
Po'cahon'tas E.1595-1617 ) . A Celebrated Indian 'princess,' Daughter Of Powhatan She Is First Mentioned In The True Relation (1605) Of Capt. John Smith (q.v.) As "a Child Of Tonne Yeares Old. Which Not Only For Feature, Countenance. And Proportion Much Exceedeth Any Of The Rest Of His [1'owhatan's1 People. ...

Podiebrad
Podiebrad, Po'dye-brad, George ( 1420-71). King Of Bohemia From 1458 To 1471. He Was Horn At Podiebrad In 1420, The Son Of A Bohe Mian Noble, Herant Of Podiebrad And Kunstatt. He Adhered To The Moderate Party Of The During The Reign Of Sigismund : Hut When. On The Death ...

Poetics
Poetics (gk. Ircpt Ircurrocis, Peri Poietikes). A Fragmentary Treatise By Aristotle On The Phi Losophy Of Art, And Especially Of Poetry. All We Have Of It ( And Possibly All That Was Ever Writ Ten) Is The Discussion Of Epic Poetry And The Tragic Drama, Fortunately Enriched With Many Allusions ...

Poggio Bracciolini
Poggio Bracciolini, Pod'jt, Brive116 Le'nts. Giovanni Francesco (1380-1459). A Dis Tinguished Italian Scholar And Author In The Renaissance Period. He Was Born At Near Florence. And After Studying Tinder John Of Ravenna And Manuel Arysoloras Became A Copyist Of Manuscripts. His Skill In That Pursuit Attracted The Attention Of The ...

Poincare
Poincare, Pwan'idt'riv, Jules Henry (1854— ). A French Mathematician And Phys Icist, Born At Nancy. He Entered The Eeole Poly Technique In 1873. But Left Two Years Later To Take Up Work In The School Of .),lines. He Became An Engineer In 1s79, And In The Same Year Doctor Of ...

Poisonous Plants
Poisonous Plants, Plants Which Contain Poisonous Substances In Sufficient Amounts To Render Them Injurious When Eaten Or Touched By Men Or Animals. There Is, How Ever. No Sharp Line Of Distinction Between Poison Ous And Non-poisonous Plants. Many Harmless Plants, Even Some Of Our Most Wholesome Food Like The Potato, ...

Poitiers
Poitiers, Pwit'tym. The Capital Of The De Partment Of Vienne, And Formerly Of The Province Of Poitou. In Western France. It Is Situated On A Plateau-like Peninsula Formed By The Junction Of The Clain And The Doivre Rivers, And On The Orleans Railroad. 55 Miles Southwest Of Tours (map: France, ...

Poland
Poland, Poland. A Former Kingdom Of Europe, Whose Territory Is Now Included In Bus Sia, Austria-hungary, And Prussia. At Its Great Est Extent, Previous To 1660, It Had An Area Of About 375,000 Square Miles. With A Popula Tion Of About 15.000,000, And Extended North Ward To The Baltic Sea ...

Polar Clock
Polar Clock (from Neo-lat. Polaris, Re Lating To The Pole. From Let. Po/us, From Ilk. T6.ios,polos, Pivot, Axis. Pole, From Iroecreat, Pelcs Mai. To Be In Motion; Connected With Skt. Cur, To Move). A Form Of Polariscope Invented By Sir Charles Wheatstone For Telling The Time Of Day, And Based ...

Polariscope
Polariscope (from Neo-lat. Polaris, Re Lating To The Pole + Gk. Cr Kolrell", Skopcin, To View). An Instrument Which Consists Of Any Combination Of It Means Of Producing Polarized Light, Or 'pollarizer,' And A Device For Testing The Polarization At Light, Or 'analyzer.' In Ordinary Light (see Light) The Direction ...

Polarization Of Skylight Tim
Polarization Of Skylight. Tim Polarization Of Blue Skylight Was Known To Huygens, And Is Evident To Any One Who Will Look At The Sky Through A Prism Of Iceland Spar. After A Systeumtic Investigation Of The Distribution Of Polarized Light In Different Parts Of The Sky, Arago (1811) Discovered That ...

Pole
Pole. In Geography, One Of The Iwo Extremi Ties Of The Axis Round Which The Earth Revolves. They Are Therefore Situated The One On The North And The Other On The South Side Of The Equator. And Equidistant From All Parts Of It, Or In Latitude North And Latitude 90' ...

Pole And Polar
Pole And Polar. The Secant Drawn Through The Points Of Contact Of Two Intersecting Tangents To A Conic Is Called The Polar Of The Point Of Intersection With Respect To The Conic, And The Point Is Called The Pole Of The Secant. Any Secant Of A Conic Through A Given ...

Polecat
Polecat (probably From Fr. Poule, Hen + Eng. Eat Hardly From /we + Cat, Or From (lf. Pulcat, Stinking + Ent. Eat), (o. Frroarr. The Of European Martens (putorius (crtidus), The Length Of The Head And Body Being About Eighteen Inches. The Length Of The Tail More Than Five Inches. ...

Police
Police (from Lat. Politic, From Ilk. 7raiirria, Polifria, State, Government. Citizenship. From Citizen, From 762/c, Po/is. City). In Its Broader Significance, The Whole Internal Ad Ministration Of A State Less The Jthlicial Power. In A More Restricted Sense The Term Police Denotes That Sphere Of Governmental Activity W Lich Has ...

Police Power
Police Power. The Inherent Power Of A Government To Take Such Action And To Pass Lawa As May Be Deemed Necessary For Its Own Protection, And To Secure The Safety. Comfort, And General Welfare Of Its Citizens. It Is Very Difficult To Define The ',revise Limits Of The Police Power ...

Policy
Policy (fr. Police, It. Polizza, From Ail. Polit Inn M Polet Um, Polet Icum, Polypi Yeum, Register, From Gk. 71)?i7:711,,r. Nett. Sg. Of R?iii 77v Xoc, Polyptychos, Having Many Folds Or Leaves, From 7roxit, Polys, Much, Many Rr1.5, Pip-. Fold. Leaf. Front Ptysscin. To Fold ). A Method Of Gambling. ...

Polignac
Polignac, Pi'llt.'nyitkl. An Ancient French Family, Several Of Whose Members Played A Prominent Part At Court After The Time Of Louis Xi V. Melchior De Polignac ( 1(161 -17421 Was Horn At In The Department Of Haute-loire. He Was Destined By His Parents For An Ecclesiastical 'career, And Received An ...

Polish Language
Polish Language. A Language Belong Ing To The Western Group Of 'zlavic Languages (q.v.) And Occupying The Second Place In Impor Tance In That Family. It Is Spoken By About 15.0)00, 00u Persons In Those Parts Of Russia, Austro Hungary, And Prussia Which Constituted The Former Kingdom Of Poland, And ...

Political Economy
Political Economy. The Term Econom Ics, Derived From The Greek Words Olkoc (house Hold) And Vopoc (law Or Regulation), Was Used By Xenophon And In The Spurious Treatise At Tributed To Aristotle, To Signify The Art Of Pru Dent And Systematic Household Management, With Particular Reference To Family Income And ...

Political Parties
Political Parties. Voluntary Associa Tions Or Organizations Of Citizens For The Attain Ment Of Desired Ends Or Policies Through United Political Action. They Are Found In All Demo Cratic States And All Countries Governed Upon A Constitutional Basis, And Are A Necessary Accom Paniment Of Popular Government. The Germanic Nations, ...

Political Science
Political Science. That Branch Of The Social Sciences Which Deals With The Organization And Life Of The State. It Comprises The Considera Tion Of The General Problem Of The Origin And Na Ture Of The State: Investigations Into Constitu Tional Forms, Political Forces. And Modes Of Pub Lie Administration; And ...

Poliziano
Poliziano, Anarr.o (latin Ized Form, Polilianns (1454-1494). An Italian Seholar And Poet. Ile Was The Son Of A Doctor Of Civil Law, And Was Born At Aiontepuleiano, In Tus Cany. Duly 14, 1454. The Family Name Was Am Brogini, But Poliziano Took His Name From His Native Town—in Latin, Mons ...

Polk
Polk, Poi:. James Knox (1795-1s49). The Eleventh President Of The United States, Born In Mecklenburg County. N. C., November 2. 1795. His Ancestors. Who Bore The Name Of Pollock, Emi Grated From The North Of Ireland Early In The Eighteenth Century. Polk Graduated At The Uni Versity Of North Carolina ...

Pollination
Pollination. Transference Of The Pollen (q.v.) From The Stamen Of A Flower To The Stigma Of The Same Flower (self Or Close Pollination) Or To That Of Another Flower (cross-pollination). Several Terms Associated With These Processes May Be Here Defined: .lutogamy, Self-pollination Of Flowers; Alloganty,cros,;-pollination; Gritonogamy, Cross-pollination Between Two Flowers ...

Polnisch Ostrau
Polnisch-ostrau, A Town In The Crownland Of Silesia. Austria, On The Gstrawitza, Opposite Mithrischtistrau, 00 Miles West-southwest Of Cracow. Its Importance Is Due To The Extensive Coal Deposits Of The Neigh Borhood, Which Form The Southwestern Part Of The Great Upper Silesia Coal-belt. The Town Produces Malt And Liquors. Population, ...

Polo
Polo, Llatteo (c.1250-1324). The Most Cele Brated Traveler Of The Middle Ages. Lie Be Longed To A Noble Venetian Family. Llis Father, Niceolo Polo. And His Uncle, Maffeo Polo, Went About 1249 To The Crimea And From There Jour Neyed To Cathay Or China. Here They Were Re Ceived By ...

Poltava
Poltava, Pol-tit'va, Or Pultowa, Pkil' Ta-vit. A Of Little Russia, Bounded By The Government Of Tchernigov On The North. Kharkov On The East, Ekaterinoslav And Kher Son On The South, And Kiev On The West (map: Russia, D 5). Area. About 19,000 Square Miles. The Surface Is Undulating, Slightly Elevated ...

Polyandry
Polyandry (from Gk. Roxvavdpia, Poly Ondraa Populousness, From Polyandros. Many Men, From Much. Many + Am7r, Man). That Form Of Mar And The Family In Which A Woman Has More Than One Husband At A Time. There Are Two Well-marked Types Of Polyandry, In One Of Which, Called Nair Polyandry, ...

Polybius
Polyb'ius (lat., From Poly Bios) (...205-e.120 Mc.). The Chief Greek Ids Torian Of The Hellenistic Period, Born At Lopolis, In Arcadia. Lie Was The Son Of Lyeortas. A Of The Achwan And An Intimate Friend Of Philopcemen. His Birth And Talent Early Secured Him Important Political Positions In His Native ...