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Police

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POLICE (from Lat. politic, from Ilk. 7raiirria, polifria, state, government. citizenship. from citizen, from 762/c, po/is. city). In its broader significance, the whole internal ad ministration of a State less the jthlicial power. In a more restricted sense the term police denotes that sphere of governmental activity w Lich has to do with the maintenance of the public peace, order, and security. and the protection of the pub health and morals. (See POLICE POWER.) In this article the use of the term is still further restricted to that part of the State administra tion which is concerned primarily with the preser vation of the peace and the prevention and detec tion of crime in urban communities. The first in stance of the separation of the police magistracy from the judicial magistracy seems to have oc curred in France in the fourteenth century. About the same time a military police was or ganized which eventually became the basis of the present French gendfIrmerie. In Paris a syste matic pollee force soon came to be organized and before the close of the eighteenth century consisted or between seven and eight hundred men. In Eng land the police administration was in the hands of the justices of the peace, who had under their con trol a small number of parish constables. Sev eral attempts in the course of the eighteenth cen tury were made to improve the system of London police, but it was not until 1828 that the passage of the celebrated Peel Act established a con stabulary force for the city under commisshmers appointed by the Crown. This has been described the first modern police force in the world. The act provided for a thoroughly organized and dis ciplined corps of trained men, a regular day and night patrol, and a force of reserves to be sta tioned at police headquarters. Although attacked at the time, the Peel system in its main features was adopted in other cities in England. In New York City, in 1841, the police force con sisted of two constables in each of the 17 wards, 100 marshals, 300 night watchmen, and 100 war dens, bell-ringers, inspectors, and so on. At the same time Boston had 22 day poldeenaer 2011 Might watchmen; Philadelphia had 24 day patrol men and 120 night watchmen. During the first half of the century the control of the police was everywhere in the hands of the local authorities, but beginning with the year 1857 State boards of police were created for the man agement of the police in several of the larger cities. In 1900 the police of Baltimore, Saint Louis, Boston, and Cincinnati were still under the management of State Boards, but nearly every where else the old method of local control had been rfgfstablished.

In 1854 the police system of Paris was reor ganized on the lines of the English system. and other Continental cities have followed. In the metropolitan distrild of London this force num bers 15.000 men; in Paris. 8000; in New York, 7000; in Berlin, 4500; in Vienna, 3500: in Chi cago. 3000; and in Philadelphia. 2400. The num ber of policemen to every 10.000 of population is 20 in New York, 24 in London, 25 in Berlin, and 30 in- Paris. The total annual expendi tures for police purposes amount. to more than eight Million dollars in London. more than eleven million in New York, more than eight million in Paris, more than three million in Berlin, and about four million in Chicago.

The system of organization cif the police force varies widely with different cities. The supreme authority is usually either a single superintend ent o• a board. In Continental Europe the single headed authority is most common, the maire or the burgomaster being commonly vested with the immediate control of police affairs. In the TInited States the same system prevails in most of the smaller cities and in many of the largo• ones. In

(;teat Britain the statutes usually require that such boards shall he hi-partisan, chiefly on ac count of the control which the police exercise over the machinery of elections. The Superin tendent, Commissioner, or Chief, whatever title he may bear, is the executive head of the police ad ministration, and in general is responsible for the character of the police service. For the pur poses of police administration a city is usually into it number of police districts or pe ehicts. Each pit-cilia has a detachment of police at the head of which is a captain, who is respon sible for the execution of the orders of the chief, and who in Will may issue illStilletiOnS to those under Ids command. In the larger cities officers intermediate between captain, and superintend ents, inspeetors, are frequently provided, and these have control of a certain number of pre cincts. :Next below the captains in the organiza tion are the lieutenants, or, more frequently, the sergeants. Below the sergeants are the 'rounds men,' who are charged With the duty of seeing that the patrolmen perfor•mm their duties. The lowest officer of the police force is the patrolman, whose general duty it is to patrol a given district of territory. In addition to the patrolmen un active duty a number of reserves are usually kept in each station for use in ease of emergency. Frequently, as in the public parks and in parts of the city Where the posts are unusually long. mounted police are provided, and in the principal ports, as in the case of New York City, there are special harbor police. A frequent and important branch of the police service is the detective bu reau, consisting of a force of men employed for their shrewdness and ability to detect crime as well as their knowledge of noted criminals. like the regular patrolmen, they do not wear uni forms. Occasionally, as in the city of New York, there are also special detachments of sanitary po. lice and bicycle squads.

From the standpoint ,i„1„f the relation of the po lice to the central Covernment considerable variety in principle is to be seen. Thus in Ire land, Egypt, India, and Australia the police is subject to the strict control of the central Govern ment. In Ireland the police force is the Irish constabulary, organized in 1836, consisting of military forces under the immediate control of the central Government at Dublin. In fInssia the system is thoroughly centralized. Elsewhere in Continental Europe the police administration is either directly or indirectly under central con trol. It is a general practice in Europe for the central Government to defray a part of the cost of administering the police. In Berlin the amount granted by the central Government is four-fifths of the cost ; in London and Paris, one third. The borough and county police of England receive a Parliamentary grant. amounting to one-hall of the cost of maintenance, provided a given stand ard of efficiency is maintained. In American cities the entire cost of its police is defrayed by the municipal Government.

lit most of the European countries a State police is maintained and is under the immediate control of the central Coverillnent. It is gen erally modeled after the French gendarmerie, which is a part of the Begular Army. In Inissia the secret pollee is concerned with the suppression of political agitation. Although lo cally selected, police in the United States are regarded by the courts as State agents and not agents of the municipalities. and the munici palities cannot be held liable for the tortinns acts of its police officers.

131ituoGnAeltv. Thinicipal Administra tion (Sew York. ; Castello, The New York Poi ; The (phis Police; Savage, Tit. nostoo II itch ono/ Polk( ; Brayer, .Pulice administrat lee c t judieiaire (1S94).