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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 16

Powhatan Confederacy
Powhatan Confederacy. A Confed Eracy Of Algonquian Tribes Of Eastern Virginia, Deriving Its Name From Its Organizer And Ruling Chief, Powhatan (q.v.). The Territory Of The Confederacy Comprised All Of Tidewater Virginia From Chesapeake Bay Inland To The Falls Of The Principal Rivers, Or Just West Of A Line Drawn ...

Pozzuoli
Pozzuoli, Piit's)-6-16 (lat. Puteoli). A Port In The Province Of Naples, Italy, Situated On The Gulf Of The Same Name, 6 Miles West Of Naples, With Which It Is Connected By Rail And By Tramway (map: Italy, J 7). It Lies On A Hill In A Volcanic District, Which Is ...

Practice
Practice (from Of. Practicer, Pratiscr, Practiquer, Protiquer, Fr. Pratiquer, To Practice, From Ml. Practicare, Praticare, To Perform, From Practice, Business, Fem. Of Lat. Practicus, From Gk. Arpatcruc6s, Praktikos, Practical, From Rpcio-o-etv, Prassein, To Do). In General, The Ac Quisition Of A Special Skill Or Dexterity By Fre Quent Performance Of ...

Pradt
Pradt, Pent, Dominique De (1759-l837). A French Prelate And Diplomat. He Was Born At Allanche, In Auvergne, Studied First In A Military School, But Was Ordained Priest In 1783, And Pursued His Theological Studies At The Sorbonne, Becoming Doctor Of Theology In 1785. Made Vicar-general Of The Diocese Of Rouen ...

Pragmatic Sanction
Pragmatic Sanction (fr. Pragmatique, From Lat. Pragmaticas, From Gk. 7pa-,aanklis, Gragniatikos, Relating To Civil Affairs, From 7pa)i.ca, Prognia, Deed, From Rpdrarmv, Prassein, To Do L. A Solemn Ordinance Or Decree Of A Sovereign Dealing With Matters Of Primal Importance And Regarded As Constituting A Part Of The Funda Mental Law ...

Prague
Prague, Prag (bohemian Praha. Ger. Brag). The Capital Of The Austrian Crownland Of Bohemia. Situated On Both Banks Of The Mob Dau. 150 Miles Northwest Of Vienna (map: Aus Tria, D 1). Excluding The Suburbs, Prague Con Sists Of -even Pans; The Altstadt, On The Right Bank Of The River; ...

Prairie
Prairie (fr. Prairie, It. Prateria, From Ml. Protaria, Meadowland. From Lat. Protanz, Meadow). In General. An Undulating, Grass Covered Plain, As Distinguished From A Forested Plain On The One Hand And A Semi-arid Region Nr Steppe On The Other. The Name Is Applied More Specifically To The Extensive Plain Which ...

Prairie Dog
Prairie Dog. A Western American Ground-squirra Two Species Of Which (cynonlys ('olumbiaaus, West Of The Rockies, And Cynonlys Ludoricianus, East Of These Mountains) Are Lo Cally Common From The Canadian To Beyond The Mexican Boundary Of The United States. The Prairie (log Is About A Foot Long And Of Robust ...

Prajapati
Prajapati, Prd-jil'pn-te (skt., Lord Of Be Ings). The Name Of A Hindu Divinity. In The Rig-veda The Word Is Used Also As An Epithet Of Savitar (q.v.), The Revivifying Aspect Of The Sun, And Of The. Invigorating Soma (q.v.). Prajapati's Character Was Essentially That Of A Creator. And He Thus ...

Prakrit
Prakrit, Prii'krit (skt. Prakrta, Natural, Unrefined, Vernacular, From Proprti, Element, Foundation, From Pot Before + Par, To Make). The Mediaeval Popular Aryan Languages Of India, Standing Chronologically Between Sanskrit And The Modern Aryan Dialects Of The Peninsula, Such As Hindustani. Gujarati, Bengali, And Others. While There Were Doubtless A Great ...

Praxiteles
Praxit'eles (lat.. From Gk. Ripaetrans). A Celebrated Sculptor Of Ancient Greece, Of Whose Life Little Certain Is Known, Except That He Was A Citizen Of Athens, And Lived In The Fourth Century N.c. Pliny Gives Olympiad 104 (b.c. 364-361) As His Date, And Aritrnvins Says He Worked On The Mausoleum ...

Prayer For The Dead
Prayer For The Dead. The Practice Which Prevails In The Roman Catholic. Greek. And Other Oriental Churches Of Praying For The Souls Of The Deceased With The Intention And Ex Pectation Of Obtaining For Them An Alleviation Of Their Sufferings After Death. Because Of Venial Sins, Or Of The Penalty ...

Prayer Of
Prayer (of. Priere, Fr, Prwre, From Ml. Precaria, Prayer. From Lat. Precari, To Entreat; Connected With ()church Slay. Prositi. Skt. Praeh, To Ask, Goth. Frah, I Asked, Ohg. Foigi'n, Ger. Owen. As. Fripnau•, Prow. Eng. Fruit,, To Ask). In Its Broadest Sense, A Verbal Address Made To A Spiritual Being. ...

Pre Cambrian Formations
Pre-cambrian Formations. A Term Usually Applied To All Formations Which Are Older Than Those Containing The Olenellus Fauna Of The Cambrian Period. The Reason For Applying Such A General Name To This Series Of Rocks Is That The Pre-cambrian Strata Are Often So Highly Meta Morphosed. And Devoid Of Organic ...

Pre Raphaelites
Pre-raphaelites. A Term Which. Prop Erly Signifying The Italian Painter's Before Ra Phael, Is Now Commonly Applied To Their Imitators In The Nineteenth Century. It Was First Used In This Sense Of A Group Of Young German Artists Who, After Their Expulsion From The Vienna Acad Emy In I Sio, ...

Preaching Friars
Preaching Friars. See Dominicans. Supposed Inhabitants Of The Earth Anterior Adam. The Term Is Ap Plied Particularly To A Theory Advanced By Isaac De La Peyrere (better Known By His Latinized Name Pererius), Which Be Attempted To Prove From The Bible. Peyrere Was Born Of A Calvinist Family Of Bordeaux ...

Preble
Preble, Pr'elfl, Edward (1761-1807). An American Naval Officer. He Was Born In Port Land, Me., Ran Away From Home In 1777, Joined A Privateer, And Soon Afterwards Entered The Massachusetts Marine As A Midshipman On Board The Protector. In 1779 He Was Captured And Imprisoned On The Prison-ship Jersey In ...

Precedence Ml
Precedence (ml. Pra•cedcntia, From Lat. Prweederc, To Go Before, From Pew, Before ± Ccderc, To Go, Yield; Connected With Cadere, Skt. Sad, To Fall). The Order In Which Individuals Are Entitled To Follow One Another In A State Pro Cession Or On Other Public Occasions. In Former Days Questions Of ...

Precedent
Precedent (from Lat. Prwcidens. Pres. Part. Of Pra-cedere, To Go Before). In A General Sense, Any Act Or Determination Which Is Taken As A Guide To Action Under Similar Circumstances Thereafter, As Personal Habits Are Precedents Automatically Followed, And Social And Legal Cus Toms Are Precedents Which Have, By Long ...

Precession Iil
Precession (iil. Prffcessio, Advance, Pre Cedence. From Lat. Prtreedcre. To Go Before). The Points In Which The Equator Intersects The Ecliptic, Called The Equinoctial Points, Do Not Remain Sta Tionary, Hut Retrograde Slowly, I. E. Move From East To West. This Motion Is Called The Precession Of The Equinoxes (q.v.). ...

Precocity
Precocity (from Lat. Pra'co.r. Ripened Too Soon. From Pra-coquere, Ripen Beforehand, From Pea', Before + Coquere, To Cook; Connected With 1i-k.r177-7-elv, Reptein, Skt. Pac, To Cook). A Pre Mature Development, Especially Of The Mental Functions. The Chief Problems Of Precocity Are (1) The Relation Between Mental Precocity And Bodily Abnormalities, ...

Predestination
Predestination (lat. Praylcstinatio. From To Determine Beforehand, From Pro-, Before Destinare, To Determine). A Logical Term Signifying The Eternal Decree Of God Whereby Certain Men Are Appointed Unto Salva Tion. The Opposite Decree Is Called That Of Repro Bation. The Two Ideas Of An Eternal God Who Works By Plan ...

Predicable
Predicable (lat. Pra-dicabilis, What May Be Spoken Of, From Prwdicare, To Declare. From Pm, Before + Dicare. Frequentative Of Diccrr. To Say). A Term In The Scholastic Logic Connected With The Scheme Of Classification. There Were Five Designations Employed In Eta—hying Objects On A Systematic Plan—genus. Species, Dif Ference, ( ...

Prefect
Prefect (lat. Iweicctus, Overseer, Govl Ernor, From Pra/iccrc, To Set Over, From Pro., Be Fore + Facere, To Make). The Title Of Many Officers And Magistrates In Ancient Rome. The Most Important Was The Privfert Us Urbi. Or City Warden, An Appointive Office Of High Rank Estab 16hed In Very ...

Preformation
Preformation (from Lat. Pralormare, To Shape Beforehand, From Pea', Before + Formare, To Shape, From Forma, Shape). A View Originating In The Seventeenth Century With Malpighi And Bonnit. They Assumed That The Germs Of All Coming Generations Were Contained In One Prim Ordial Egg. According To This View All The ...

Prelude Of
Prelude (of. Prelude, Fr. Prelude, From Lat. Prwludere, To Play Before, From Pro-, Before + Halm:, To Play). In Music, A Short Preface Or Introduction To A More Extended Movement Or Composition. Or To A Dramatic Performance Or Church Service. It Is In The Same Key With The Selection Which ...

Premonstratensians
Premonstratensians, Called Also Norbertines. A Religious Order Which, During The Four Centuries From The Twelfth To The Six Teenth, Was One Of The Most Numerous And Pow Erful Monastic Bodies In Europe. Its Houses Were Especially Munerous In Germany, Hut There Were Many Monasteries Also In England, Where. Be Cause ...

Preposition
Preposition (lat. Pra'positio, From Prce Poncre, To Place Before, From Prce, Before + Ponere, To Place). In Grammar (q.v.), An In Declinable Word Preceding A Noun Or A Pronoun In An Oblique Case And Showing The Relation Of Such A Noun Or Pronoun To Another Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Or Verb. ...

Prepotency
Prepotency (lat. Preepotentia, Superior Power, From To Be Superior In Power, From Pro•, Before -)- Posse. To Be Able). The Power Of Exerting A Preponderating Influence In The Net Of Reproduction. Thus Some One Male An Cestor Excelling In Some Physical Or Mental Char Acter, Such As Form. Color, And ...

Presbyterian Polity
Presbyterian Polity Rests On Representative Government And An Ascending Series Of Appellate Courts. There Are Three Classes Of Officers In Every Well-organized Church—the Minister Or Pastor, Who Is Also Called A Teaching Elder: The Body Of Ruling Elders, Who, With The Pastor. Have The Spiritual Oversight Of The Church; And ...

Presbytery Ml
Presbytery (ml. Pre.sbyterium, From Gk. Rpco-ftureptop, Assembly Of Elders, From Rim- In-epos, Pr•esbytcros, Elder). Generally, The Body Or Class Of Presbyters Or Elders In The Christian Churches Taken Collectively. More Specifically, In The Churches Having A Presbyterian Form Ernment, It Is One Of A Series Of Judicatories, Ranking Next Above ...

Prescription
Prescription (lat. Prwscriptio, From Pra•scribcre, To Prescribe, From Prw, Before + Scriberc, To Write). A Formula By Which The Ploysician Directs The Coin P011ading And Dispens Ing Of Medicines. Prescriptions Were Formerly Written Entirely In Latin. The Common Scientific Language; But At The Present Time And In This Country The ...

President Of
President (of. President, Fr. President, From Lat. Prwsidens. President, Pres. Part. Of Prirsidere, To Preside, Direct, Sit Before, From Prtr, Before Sedere, To Sit). The Chief Exeeutive Officer Of The United States Government, Chosen For A Term Of Four Years By An Electoral College. In Ease Of Removal, Resignation, Death, ...

Press Associations
Press Associations. Associations Of Newt‘papers Or News Agencies For The Gathering And Dissemination Of News Were Unknown Prior To 1849. Hitherto It Had Been Entirely A Matter Of Individual Enterprise, But In That Year. As A Direct Result Of The Rapid Development Of The Tele Graph, And Steam Transportation Both ...

Pressburg
Pressburg, (hung. Pozsony). A Royal Free City And The Capital Of The County Of Pressburg, Hungary. Situated In A Beautiful Region. On The North Bank Of The Danube. 35 Miles East Of Vienna (slap: Hungary. E 21. It Is One Of The Finest Cities Of Hungary. The Fortifications Of The ...

Preston
Pres'ton. A Manufacturing And Market Town In Lancashire, England, On The Ribble, At The Head Of Its Estuary, 21 Miles North-northeast Of Liverpool (map: England. D 3). The Town Is Well Laid Out And Is Surrounded With Pleasing Scenery. The Chief Public Buildings Are The Town Hall, Which Contains The ...

Presumption
Presumption (lat. Prcrsumptio, Antici Pation, From Prwsumere, To Presume, Anticipate. Take For Granted, From Pro-, Before ± Sumcre, To Take). In Law, In Its Broadest Sense, An Infer Ence As To The Existence Of A Fact Not Known Or Proved To Exist, Which Inference Arises From Its Logical Connection Or ...

Pretorius
Preto'rius, Pron. Prti-to'ri-us, Earth Inas Wessels ( 1827-1901). A South African Soldier And Statesman, The First President Of The South African Republic. He Was Born In Natal, The Son Of Andries Pretorius, One Of The Leaders Of The 'great Trek,' And Subsequently Commandant-general Of The Boer Forces. Lie Suc Ceeded ...

Previous Question
Previous Question. A Question Put To A Parliamentary Assembly Upon Motion Of A Mem Ber To Ascertain Whether It Is The Will Of The Assembly To Vote At Once And Thus Put A Stop To Further Debate On The Subject Under Considera Tion. The Form Of The Previous Question Is: ...

Prevost
Prevost, Prfi'vel, Marcel (1s62 —). A French Novelist, Born In Paris Slay 1, 1592. He Was Educated By The Jesuits And At The Polytechnic School, Engaged In Tohacco Manufac Turing. And Entered The Literary Field In 1891. In 1557, However, He Published Le Scorpion, An At Tack On Jesuit Education: ...

Prevost Dexiles
Prevost D'exiles, Prei've/ Di'ig'zw. An Toine Francois (1697-1763). A French Novelist, Best Known As The Author Of Iiamm Lescaut ((ix .) • Prevost Born At Hesdin, April 1, 1697. His Father Was A Petty Official. Antoine Had Been By Turns A Student Of The Jesuits, A Novice Among Them, A ...

Priene
Priene, Pri-o'ni% (let.. From (:k. Ifpri1r>!). A Greek City Of Asia Situated On The North Shore Of The Latmic Gulf On A Projecting Spur Of Mount Mycale. The Acropolis And Earliest Settlement Were On A Plateau Inaccessible Except By Rock-cut Steps, While The Later City Covered A Series Of Lower ...

Prieneste
Prieneste, The Modern Pales Trina. A Very Ancient City Of Latium, Situated On The Slope Of The Hills About Twenty Miles Southeast Of Rome. Tradition Ascribed Its Foundation To Telegonus. The Son Of Ulysses, Or To A Certain Cieculus. Son Of Vulcan. It Was One Of The Important Cities In ...

Priest As
Priest (as. Pffost, Of. Prestre, Fr. Pretre, Priest, From Lat. Presbyter, Elder, Presbyter). The Title, In Its Most General Signification, Of A Minister Of Public Worship, But Specially Applied To The Minister Of Sacrifice Or Other Mediatorial Offices. In The Early History Of Mankind There Is No Priest. Such A ...

Prigg Vs Pennsylvania
Prigg Vs. Pennsylvania. An Impor Tant Case Decided In 1842 By The Supreme Court Of The United States, Which Defined The Rights And Duties Of The Various States With Reference To The Rendition Of Fugitive Slaves. In 1826 Pennsyl Vania Passed A Law Against Kidnapping Which Hn Posed Severe Penalties ...

Prim
Prim, Prria, Juan, Marquis De Los Jos, Count Of Deus (1814-70). A Spanish General And Statesman. He Was Born In Hens, Catalonia. December 6, 1814, Entered The Army At An Early Age, Rendered Narvaez (q.v.) Efficient Assistance In Securing The Downfall Of Espartero In 1843, And Was Made A Count. ...

Primary Elections
Primary Elections (lat. Primarius, Relating To The First Or Earliest, Front Prim First, From Pro, Before: Connected With Ok, Lrp(5, Pro, Skt. Pra, Goth. Mar, Oho. Fora. Ger. Ror, As., Eng. For) - The Term Used To Designate The Means Through Which Candidates For Elective Offices Are Nominated. In A ...

Primate
Primate (lat. Printas, Chief, From Prinnus, First). A Title In Sonic Of The Christian Churches Applied To A Bishop As First In A Province O• Group Of Provinces. A Metropolitan Is A Primate As Pre Siding In His Province, Or One Of Several Metro Politans As Presiding Over Others. The ...

Primittve Ware
Primittve Ware. In General, Primitive Pot Tery Is Made From Surface Soil, Sometimes Of Most Unpromising Appearance, Rather Than From The Finer And Purer Grades Of Clay. Naturally The Ware Produced From Such Material Is Coarse And Thick-walled. Some Of The Crudest Types Of Ware Are Molded In Baskets—indeed, Find ...

Primogeniture Ml
Primogeniture (ml. Primogenitura, From Lat. Primogenita, Rights Of The First Born, Nen. P]. Of Primoycnit Us. From Prim Us, First Genitus. P.p. Of Giancr,, To Produce). In The Law Of Inheritance. The Right Of The First Born To Take By Descent The Real Property Of A Deceased Ancestor, To The ...

Primula Ml
Primula (ml., Fem. Of Lat. Primulas, Di Minutive Of Prim Us. First; So Called In Allusion To The Early Bloom), Primrose. A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Primulacex, Comprising About 150 Species, Mostly Perennials, Generally Having Only Radical Leaves And Bearing The Flow Ers In An Umbel, More ...

Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island. The Small Est Province Of The Dominion Of Canada. It Is Situated In The Southern Part Of The Gulf Of Saint Lawrence, Being Separated From New Brunswick And Nova Scotia By The Strait Of Northumberland (map: Canada. S I ). Length. 130 Miles: Breadth, 4 To :30 ...

Princeton Theological Semi Nary
Princeton Theological Semi Nary. One Of The Oldest Protestant Schools Of Theology In America. In 1809 The Proposal To Found A Theological Seminary For The Presbyterian Church Was Introduced Before The General Assem Bly In The Form Of An Overture From The Presbytery Of Philadelphia. In 1s12 The General Assembly ...

Princeton University
Princeton University. An Institu Tion Of Higher Education At Princeton, N. J., Founded In 1746. About 1726 William Tennent, A Graduate Of The University Of Edinburgh, Had Established In Bucks County, Pa., A School Known As The Log College, The Success Of Which Led In 1739 To A Movement By ...

Print
Print (by Apheresis, From Me. Emprinten, En Printen, To Imprint, From Of., Fr. Em Preinte, Imprint, P.p. Of Enweindre, It. Imprimcre, To Impress, Imprint, From Lat. Imprintere, Inprimere, To Impress, From In, In ± Premere, To Press). In The Arts, Anything Which Is The Result Of, O• Which Takes Its ...

Printing
Printing. The Process Of Taking Impres Sions, Generally On Paper In Ink, Of Printing Types Or Of Designs, Drawings, Or Photographic Prints, Which Have Been Previously Cut, Etched, Drawn, Or Engraved On Some Solid Surface. Printing With Ink Is Done By Three Methods: (1) From A Raised Surface In High ...

Printing Presses
Printing Presses. The Earliest Engraving Of A Printing Press Shows A Stoat Framework Of Wood Posts, Firmly Braced Against The Ceiling To Resist Upward Pressure, A Bed Plate Of Stone As A Rest For The Form Of Type, Which Could He Exposed To Receive Ink, And Then Be Slid Upon ...

Priscilla
Priscil'la And Aq'iiila. The Names Of Two Persons, Wife And Husband, Connected With The Personal Work Of Saint Paul And The Early History Of The Christian Church. The Name Priscilla Is A Diminutive From The Original Prism, In Which Form It Is Found In The Best Texts In The Three ...

Priscillian
Priscillian (lat. Priseillianus) ( ?-3s5). A Spanish Christian Of Prominence, Who, While Still A Layman. Started A Reform Movement With The View Of Deepening Religious Life And En Couraging Asceticism. He Afterwards Entered Holy Orders And Was Made Bishop Of Avila, In Central Spain. His Theology Diverged From Or Thodoxy ...

Prisoner
Prisoner. Any Person Who Is Confined, Or Restrained In His Liberty. Against His Will: A Person Subjected To Imprisonment. The Term Is Ordinarily Used To Designate Persons Whose Bodies Have Been Attached Or Seized In Criminal Or Quasi-criminal Proceedings And Persons Who Are Captured In War. For Further Information As ...

Prisons Of
Prisons (of., Fr. Prison, From Lat. Prcnsio, Seizure, From Premiere, Prehendere. To Seize, Take, From Pew-, Before ± -hemicre, Gk, Xeradretv, Chon &mein, To Seize; Connected With Guth. K--qitan, To Rind, 014g. Lirgezzan, Ger. Rcrgeswn, To Forget, As. Gitan, Eng. Get). Prisons Have Been Used From Antiquity As Places Of ...

Privateering
Privateering. One Of The Usages Of War According To Which Private Individuals Are Authorized By The Government Of One Belligerent To Fit Out At Their Own Expense Vessels Of War Designed To Prey Upon The Commerce Of Another Belligerent. A Privateer Is 2111 Armed Vessel Fitted Out For This Purpose, ...

Privilege
Privilege (lat. Privil(ginnt, Prerogative, From Prints. One's Own Hi% Law). In Law, A Benefit Or Immunity Growing Out Of Some Special Rule Of Law Or Statute By Virtue Of Which An Individual Or A Class Enjoys Cer Tain Immunities Or Rights Distinct From Or Beyond The Provisions Of Law Generally ...

Privileged Communication
Privileged Communication. A Term Applied To Two Distinct Classes Of Statements. First, It Denotes Communications Between Parties To A Confidential Relation, Which The Law Does Not Force The Recipient To Disclose As A Wit Ness. Examples Of This Class Are Statements Made By A Client To His Lawyer, By A ...

Privileges And Immunities Of
Privileges And Immunities Of Citizens. The Constitution Of The United States Nowhere Under Takes To Enumerate The Privileges And Immunities Of Citizens Of The United States. Although The Fourteenth Amendment Assumes That There Are Such, And Expressly Prohibits The States From Making Or Enforcing Any Law Which Shall Abridge Them. ...

Privy Council
Privy Council. In England, The Assem Bly Appointed By The Sovereign To Give Advice On Matters Of State. In Anglo-saxon Times The Kings Had Been Advised By The \vitenagemot, And In Norman Times This Became The Great Council. Naturally, The Kings Had More Intimate Coun Selors, And They Separated In ...

Prix De Rome
Prix De Rome, Pre De Rum (fr., Prize Of Rome). The Grand. Prix De Rome Is A Prize Given By The French Government To A Certain Number Of Painters, Sculptors, Architects, Musi Cians, And Engravers, Who Have Passed A Rigid Ex Amination In Their Respective Departments Of Art. The Winner ...

Prize Courts
Prize Courts. Special Tribunals For The Adjudication Of Questions Of Prize (q.v.). The Submission Of The Question Of The Legality Of A Capture In War To The Determination Of A Court Is Not A Right Which An Enemy May Claim, Since It Is Assumed That All Captures Are Enemy's Prop ...

Prize Of
Prize (of., Fr. Prise, Fem. Sg. Of Pris, P.p. Of Prendre, From Lat. Premiere, Prehendere, To Seize, Take). In International Law, A Term Ap Plied To All Captures Of Property Made During The Course Of War Upon The High Seas Or In The Ter Ritorial Waters Of A Belligerent. The ...

Probabilism
Probabilism (from Lat. Probabilis, Prob Able. From Probare, To Test, Examine. Front Probes, Good. Skt. Prabhu. Prefminent. From Pra. Before Bha, To Be). In Roman Catholic Theology, The Doctrine Regarding The Use Of So-called 'probable Opinions' In Guiding The Conscience As To The Law Fulness Or Unlawfulness Of Any Particular ...

Probability
Probability (lat. Probabilitas, From Probabilis, Probable). Expressions Like The Fol Lowing Are In Common Use: "it Will Probably Rain To-day," "the Chance Of Finding The Article Is Very Small," "he Is More Likely To Succeed Than To Fail," "a Is Almost Sure To Be Elected." These Expressions All Imply A ...

Probate Court
Probate Court (let. Probatus, P.p. Of Probate, To Test, Examine, From Probes, Good ). A Court, Whose Original Functions Consist In The Probate Of Wills And The Administration Of De Cedents' Estates. In England It Dates From The Court Of Probate Act Of 1857 (20-21 Viet.. E.77). A Statute Which ...

Probation After Death
Probation After Death (lat. Probe Tio, From Probate, To Test, Examine). A Theologi Cal Doctrine According To Which Man's Future Destiny Is Not Unalterably Fixed At Death, But Either All Men Or A Certain Class Of Men Will Be. Placed On Trial In Another Life For A Definite Period Or ...

Probus
Pro'bus, Matters Armajts, Roman Emper Or A.d. 276-282. He Was Born At Sirmium. In Pannonia. Probns Early Entered The Army, And Had The Good Fortune To Attract The Favorable Notice Of The Emperor. Valerian, Who Elevated Him Before The Legal Period To The Rank Of Tribune. He Distinguished Himself Against ...

Procedure Of
Procedure (of. Procedure. Fr. Procedure, From Lat. Procedere. To Go Forward, From Pro, Be Fore, For ± Ceders, To Go). In Law, The Successive Step, Or Proceedings In The Initiation And Conduct Of A Judicial Proceeding, And The Rules Of Law Governing Them. In Its Broadest Sense The Term Includes ...

Processes Or Manufacture
Processes Or Manufacture. Porcelain Is Made By Firing Together Two Natural Materials Which Are Known By Chinese Names, Kaolin And Petuntze, Al Though The Deposits Found In Europe Are Not Com Monly Of Exactly The Same Chemical Nature As The Chinese. The Latest Careful Writer On The Subject, William Burton, ...

Proclus
Pro'clus (lat., From Gk. Iltiosnot,proklot) (a.n. 410-485). The Last Important Teacher Among The Greek Neo-platonists. He Was Born At Constantinople, Brought Up At Xanthus In Lyeia, And First Trained In Philosophy At Alex Andria By The Aristotelian Olympiodorus. In Athens Lie Was A Disciple Of The Neo-platonists Plutarch And Syrianus. ...

Procopius
Proco'pius (bat., From /:upiosl. An Eminent Byzantine Historian. He Was Born At Clcsareos In Palestine, About The Be Ginning Of The Sixth Century. Went To Constanti Nople When Still A Young Man. And Acquired There So High A Reputation As A Professor Of Rhetoric That Belisarins, In 527. Appointed Hint ...

Procopius_2
Procopius, Axnuew (c.1380-1434). A Hus Site Leader. Known As Procopius The Great. He Is Also Sometimes Called The Iloly. Or The Shaven. In Allusion To His Having Received The Tonsure In Early Life. Ile Studied In Prague'. And After Trav Eling For Several Years In Foreign Countries He Returned To ...

Proctor
Proctor (abbreviated From Of. Procurator, From Lat. Procurator, Manager, From Proeurare, To Manage, From Pro, Before, For Curare, To Care, From Cars, Care). In Its Legal Sense, Originally One Of The Body Of Men Who Had The Exclusive Privilege Of Appearing In The Ecclesiastical And Admiralty Courts Of England; Now, ...

Production
Production (lat. Productio, A Lengthen Ing. From Produecre, To Lead Forth, From Pro. Be Fore, For + Dueerc, To Lead). One Of The Divisions Of Political Economy Devoted Mainly To The Consid Eration Of The Factors Which Affect The Amount Of Wealth Produced. From The Standpoint Of Pro Duction The ...

Productus
Productus (lat. Productus, Prolonged, Led Forward, P.p. Of Produccre, To Lead Forward, Pro Duce). An Important Genus Of Fossil Brachiopods Found In Upper Devonian And Especially In Car Boniferous Rocks, The Shells Are Usually Semi Circular In Outline, With Straight Hinge-line, Con Cave Or Flat Dorsal And Very Convex Ventral ...

Professional Education
Professional Education. The Train Ing That Tits Men For The Special Vocations In Which Science Is Applied To The Practical Purposes Of Life. It Supposes As Its Basis The Knowledge And Discipline Which General Culture Affords. The Leading Professional Schools In The United States, Following The Example Set By European ...

Profit Sharing
Profit Sharing. A Modified Form Of The Wages System By Which Wage-earners Receive A Part Of The Surplus Of The Industry According To Some Understood Plan. Overseers Receive Salaries, Capitalists Interest, Wage-earners Wages, And What Remains Is Divided Among These Classes. Who All Are Responsible For Success Or Failure. A ...

Profit Of
Profit (of., Fr. Profit, From Lat. Profectus, Progress, Increase, Profit, From Proficcrc, To Ad Vance. Make Progress, Be Advantageous, From Pro, Before, For + Facers, To Make). The Excess In The Selling Price Of Goods Above Their Cost Of Produc Tion. The Term Has Been Variously Used, Both In Common ...

Programme Music
Programme Music (lat. Prograninut, From Gi:. R Phpapp,a, Edict, From Rperypdcpev, Pro Gra Ph (-in, To Write Before, From Irp6, Pro, Before ^ypdepelv, Graphein, To Write). A Term In Ninsic Applied To Purely Instrumental Works Which Are Intended To Reproduce By Musical Tones A Series Of Definite Ideas Or Events. ...

Prohibition
Prohibition (lat. Prohibit/0, A Forbid Ding, Prevention, From Prohibere, To Forbid, Pre Vent, From /»-o, Before, For + Hairyc, To Have). A Form Of Sumptuary Legislation Which Attempts To Abolish The Ma Nu Fa Ct Ore And Sale Of Alcoholic Liquors. Until After The Civil War The Move Ment Toward ...

Prohibition Party
Prohibition Party. The Failure Of The Advo Cates Of Temperance To Force A Prohibition Plank Upon Either Of The Great National Parties Led The Pennsylvania State Temperance Convention In February. 1867. To Suggest The Organization Of A Separate Party. In 1868 A Prohibition Party Was Organized In Illinois And Michigan ...