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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 16

Projectiles
Projectiles, Mcariox Or. By This Is Under Stood The Path Followed By A Particle Of Matter Projected Either Obliquely Upward, Or Horizon Tally From A Height Above The Earth's Surface. The Problem Of Predicting This Path Was Solved By Galileo, The Solution Depending Upon The Assumption That The Horizontal Velocity ...

Projectiles
Projectiles (from Project. Of. Projccter, Ptojctcr, Fr. Projekr. To Project, From Lat. Pro Jcetarc, To Thrust Forth, Frequentative Of Proji Erre, To Throw Forward. From Pro, Before, For + Jacere, To Throw; Connected With Gk. Itirretp, Iaptein, To Throw). Objects Thrown Forward By An Impulse Of Short Duration. Projectiles Have ...

Projection
Projection (lat. Projectio, From Projicerr, To Throw Forward). The Act Or Result Of Con Structing A Figure Upon A Given Surface, Usually By Means Of A Pencil Of Rays, So That It Corre Sponds Point By Point To Another Given Figure. It Thus Includes Perspective (q.v.). And Is Most Simply ...

Prolapstjs Uteri
Prolapstjs 'uteri (lat., Falling Of The Womb). The Condition In Which The Womb Falls Below Its Natural Position In The Pelvic Cavity And Approaches The Outlet Of The Vagina. If The Womb Appears Outside It Is Known As Pro Cidentia, Or Complete Prolapse. Thus We Have All Degrees Of Prolapse ...

Prologue Of
Prologue (of.. Fr. Prologue, From Lat. Prolugus, From Gk. Rp6xcryor. Preface, Introduction, From Vp6, Pro, Before X6-yos, Logos, Speech, Word, Reason, Ratio). In Ancient Greek Drama, That Part Of A Play (whether An Acted Scene Or An Exclamatory Speech) Which Came Before The En Trance Of The Chorus. Thus The ...

Prometheus
Prome'theus (lat., From Gk. Ilpowiddis, From Rpoandlis, Pronwthe's, Foresighted. From Rpo, Before Nietis, Wisdom; Connected With Pabetr, Noithcin, To Learn: Less Probably Connect Ed With Skt. Pramanthu, Fire-drill. From Pre, Be Fore Months, Churning, From Math, To Whirl, Churn. Produce Fire By Friction). The Hero Of One Of The Most ...

Promissory Note
Promissory Note ( From Lat. Promissor, Promiser, From Prom It To Promise. Send Ward. From Pro, Before. For -i-- In It Tcre, To Send. Skt. Mir, To Push). A Written Instrument Containing An Express And Unconditional Promise By The Maker To Pay A Certain Sum In Money. On Demand. Or ...

Promoter Ml
Promoter (ml. Promoter, From Lat. Pro Toot-cc-c. To Promote, Push Forward, From Pro, Be Fore. For + Morerc, To Move, Skt. Nice', To Push). One Who Urges Or Assists' In The Organization Of Corporations Or Joint-stock Companies. A Pro Moter Commonly Makes The Plans For The Business Operations To Be ...

Pronghorn
Pronghorn. The Goat-antelope (antilo Copra Americana) Of The Plains Of Western North America, Generally Known As 'antelope.' And By The Canadian French As `cabree' (cabrit). It Ranged From The Missouri River To The Pacific Coast And From The Saskatchewan River To The , Interior Of Mexico, Most Commonly On Open ...

Pronoun
Pronoun (let. Pronomen, Word Standing In Place Of A Noun, From Pro, For. Before + N. Name, Word. Noun). In Grammar (q.v.), A Word Which Stands For Or Instead Of A Poun (q.v.). The Noun Is At First Concrete. The Pro Noun Is Abstract, And Thus Represents Psychologi Cally A ...

Pronunciation Of Foreign Names
Pronunciation Of Foreign Names (lat. Pronunciatio, Pronuntiatio, From Pronunciare, Pronuntiare, To Pronounce, Proclaim, From Pro, Before, For + Cizintiare, To Announce. From Nuatius. Messenger). The Correct Pronuncia Tion Of A Proper Name Chiefly Depends Upon Giving To The Letters Their Correct Value And To The Syl Lables Their Correct Degree ...

Proof Reading
Proof-reading. The Reading Of Printers' Proofs, For Correction Of Errors In The Type, Or, By Authors Or Editors, For Final Approval Or Altera Tion. Proof-readers Are Sometimes Called Cor Rectors Of The Press, And Their Work Correction Of The Press, Especially In Great Britain. Of Course, The Assembling Of Types. ...

Proof Of
Proof (of. Prove, Preure, Fr. Preare, From Lat. Proba, Proof, From Prohnre, To Test, Exam Ine). In The Mechanical Arts, A Trial Copy Or Impression. Thus, In The Art Of Die-sinking, The Impressions Taken From The The From Time To Time As It Is Brought To A State Of Approximate ...

Prophecy Of
Prophecy (of. Prophetic, Prophetic, Fr. Proph0 Ir, From Lat. Prophet Ia, From Gk. Rporparefa, Pri9mteia, Prediction, Front Rpoitr7lrc6eiv, Proph (wiwi N, To Predict, From Trpoq'afrns, Proplo'ffs, Prophet, From Irporpcisat, Prophanai. To Say Before, From Rpo, Pro, Before + Phanai, To Say) . -according To The 'popular Acceptation, Prophecy Is Essentially ...

Proportion
Proportion ( Lat. Proportio, Proportion, Symmetry, Ana Logy, From Pro, Before, For + Port Io, Connected With Pars, Part). In Nmthe Unities, An Equality Of Ratios. Thus The Ratio Of 12 To 3 Equals The Ratio Of S To 2; Hence 12:3= 8:2 Is A Proportion. In General If A:b=c:d, ...

Proportion In Fine Art
Proportion In Fine Art. This Has To Do With The Relative Sizes Of Things Represented Or Embodied In A Design; And, In A Secondary Sense, With The Relative Importance Of Certain Passages Of Light And Dark, Or Of Color More Or Less Powerful And Effective. Thus, The Composition (q.v.) May ...

Prosecutor
Prosecutor (lat. Prosecutor. Prosequu Tor, From Prosequi, To Follow). One Who Institutes And Conducts A Criminal Prosecution In Behalf Of The Government. In Most European Countries The Duty Of Con Ducting Prosecutions For Criminal Offenses Is Im Posed On Public Officers. In England It Has Been Customary For All Criminal ...

Proselyte
Proselyte Prosrlyt Us, From Gk. Rpoo"ot-os. Convert, One Who Has Come Over, From Rporrex0eiv, Proselthe In, To Have Come Toward, From Rpos, Pros, Toward + Aceiv, Elthein, To Have Come). A Convert, Generally To A New Religion. In The Septuagint The Greek 7rporrhit,ros Is The Usual Translation Of The Old ...

Prostate Gland
Prostate Gland (from Gk. Rrpour676c, Prostates. One Who Stands Before, From Ivoistanai, To Stand Before, From Rpo, Pro, Before Laravai, Histanui, To Stand). A Pale, Firm, Glandular Body. Surrounding The Neck Of The Bladder And The Commencement Of The Male Ure Thra. The Prostate Gland Secretes A Milky Fluid Having ...

Prostitution
Prostitution (lat. Prost It Ut Io. From Prostit Uerc, To Expose Publicly, To Place Before, From Pro, Before, For + Stat Here, To Place, From Stare, To Stand). Customary And Common Practice Of Lewdness For Hire. Prostitution Appears To Have Arisen In Every Race Upon Its Emergence From The Semi-promiscuity ...

Protagoras
Protag'oras (lat., From Gk. Flpidra)apac) (c. -is5-c.411 N.c.). A Famous Greek Sophist Of The Fifth Century B.c., Born At Abdera In Apparent Ly Humble Station. Ile Came To Athens Ass Early As We. 445, And In That City And In Sicily Won His Fame As A Teacher And Philosopher. About ...

Protection
Protection (lat. Protectio, From Prole To Protect, Cover Over, From Pro, Before, For Icgerc. Gk. Ariyelv, Stcycin, Skt. Sthag, To Cover. Lith. Shigas, Roof, 01r. Ley, House, Oe1g. Doh, Ger. Hach, As. Prce, Eng. Thatch). The Term Applied To The Policy Of Encouraging And Develop Ing Home Industries By Means ...

Protective Coloration And Re
Protective Coloration And Re Semblance. All Organisms Are Beautifully Adapted To The World Around Them, And This Adaptation In A Large Proportion Of Animals Ex Tends To Their Colors. The Adaptive Coloration Of Animals, The Harmony In Tint And Form With The Trees Or Herbs On Which They Live, The ...

Proteins
Proteins (from Gk. Irpilmos. Preitos, First). A Name Applied To An Exceedingly Important Group Of Chemical Substances. Occurring Abun Dantly In The Organisms Of Animals And Plants. The Principal Component Elements Of The Pro Teins Are Carbon- Hydrogen, Oxygen. And Nitrogen. When Burned. However, The Proteins Generally Leave Behind Certain ...

Protest
Protest (from Lat. Protestari, Protrstare, To Declare Publicly. Bear Witness. From Pro. Be Fore, For + Testari, To Bear Witness, From Testis, , Certificate Of. A Formal Document By A Notary Public, Or Other Duly Authorized Person, Attesting The Truth Of Some :statement Of Fact, Therein Contained. It Makes Its ...

Protestantism
Protestantism. A Term Which Has Be Come A General Designation For The System Adopted By The Reformers In The Sixteenth Cen Tury And Followed By Their Successors In Later Times. The Name Protestant Was First Applied To The Adherents Of Luther, From Their Protesting, Against The Decree Passed By The ...

Prototheria
Prototheria (neo-lat. Nom. Pl., From Gk. Rpiliros, Pr5tos, First + Therion, Diminu Tive Of Th)p, Thy R, Wild Beast). The Lesser And Inferior Of The Two Primary Divisions Of The Mannualia. It Embraces Only The Small Group Represented At Present By The Australian And Papuan Egg-laying Duckbill And Echidnas, Which ...

Protozoa
Protozoa (neo-lat. Nom. Pl.. From Gk. Rp&ros, Protos, First Soon, Animal). The Subkingdom Or Phylum Of One-celled Animal-, Represented By The Anweba (q.v.), Infusoria. And The Like. They Are. As A Rule, Of Microscopic Size, And Are Like Particles Of Protoplasm (q.v.), Having A Gliding Motion And Constantly Chang Ing ...

Protractor All
Protractor (all. Protractor, From Lat. Protrahere, To Draw Forward, From Pro, Before. For Tralicre, To Drag. Draw). An Instrument Used For Measuring And Laying Down Angles On Paper. In Its Simplest Form It Consists Merely Of A Semicircular Scale Of Metal Or Transparent Ma Terial. The Three-arm Protractor Used Iu ...

Provence
Provence (lat. Provincia, Province). For Merly A Province Of Southeastern France, Com Prising The Present Departments Of Basses-alpes, Var, And Bouches-du-rh4ne, And Parts Of The De Partments Of Vancluse And Alpes-maritimes. The Name Gallia Provineia Or Simply Provincia Was Given To The Country By The Romans, Who. About N.c. 120, ...

Provenpal
Provenpal (prelviin'sav) Language. A Family Of Romance Dialects Spoken In Provence (and Neighboring Districts), Or That Part Of South Ern France In Which Was The Roman Province Called Provincia. It Was With French The First Romance Tongue To Will Importance In Lit Erature. Its Literary Vogue Decayed After The Period ...

Proverb Of
Proverb (of., Fr. Proverbc, From Lat. Pro Ver/jill/1i, Adage, From Pro, Before, For + Rerbum, Word). A Short. Sententious Phrase Or Clause Long Current In Common Speech. The Last Phrase. 'long Current In Common Speech,' Serves To Dif Ferentiate The Proverb From The Multitude Of Happy Expressions In Literature Which ...

Providence
Providence (t.at. Proridentia, Foresight. From Prorid,rc. To Foresee. From Pro. Before, For Riderc. To See). A Term Of Theology. Including Two Elements. God's Preservation And Administra Tion Of The Material Universe, And His Moral Govern 1 Nut Over His Rational Creatures. It May Be Considered In Three Aspects. In Its ...

Providence
Providence. The Second Largest City In Now England, The Capital Of Rhode Island• And The County-seat Of Providence County; 44 Miles Southwest Of Boston And I 88 Miles Northeast Of New York (\lap: Rhode Island, C 2). It Is Situated About 35 Miles From The Atlantic Ocean, At The Head ...

Provoost
Provoost, Pro-'''. Samuel (1742-1815). First Bishop Of The Protestant Episcopal Church In New York. He Was Born In New Yo•k City, Of Huguenot Descent, And Was Educated At King's Now Columbia) College. In England He Con Tinued His Studies At St. Peter's College. Cam Bridge, And Was Ordained Priest In ...

Prudentius
Prudentius, Pro-den'shi-iis (aurelius Clemens Prunkivrius) (348-405?). The Greatest Poet Of The Early Latin Church And One Of The Leading Literary Figures Of The Fourth Century. He Was Born In Spain (probably In Saragossa). Lie Received A Liberal Education, Was Admitted To The Bar. Practiced As A Pleader, Discharged The Func ...

Prudhon
Prud'hon, Prki'd5x', Pierre (1758-18•23) A French Historical And Genre Painter, Born In Cluny. His Father Was A Stone-cutter, And He Received His First Instruction From The Monks Of The Abbey Of Cluny. Afterwards He Stud Ied Under Desvoges At Dijon. An Unfortunate Marriage Handicapped The Painter In His Youth. Ile ...

Prune
Prune (lat. Prunum, Plum. Prunes, Plum Tree, From Gk. Rpormov, Prounon, Rporm.vov, Proum Non, Plum, Rporws, Pronnos, Rpo6,avn, Proumne, Plum Tree). Any Variety Of Plum Which Can Be' Successfully Cured Without Removing The Pit. Only Those Varieties Which Have A Large Propor Time Of Solids, And Sugar In Particular, Are ...

Pruning
Pruning (from Prune, From Of. Proignier, Proyncr, Prorigner, Fr. Prorigncr, To Prune, From Of., Fr. Prorin, Vine, From Lat. Propago, Sucker, From Prop(' Go Re, To Propagate, From Pro, Before, For Pangere, Pegnynai, To Fasten). The Removing Of Any Part Of A Plant, Either Root, Stem, Or Branch, To Discourage ...

Prurigo
Pruri'go (lat.. Itch). The Name Of A Skin Disease Restricted To Prurigo Of Ilchru, Not In Cluding All Conditions In Which There Is Pruritis. Formerly Dermatologists Distinguished Pruritic., Otitis, Pruriyo Formicuns, And Pruriyo St Nilis, Which Are Now Relegated To The Eezemata And Tic Lichens (q.v.). True Prurigo, Also Called ...

Prussia
Prussia, Prfisli'n. A Kingdom And The Larg Est State Of The German Empire. By The Hn Perial Constitution Of 1871 The King Of Prussia Hears The Title Of German Emperor. The Prus Sian Territory Completely Or Nearly Surrounds That Of Live Of The Smaller States Of The Empire— The Grand ...

Prussia_2
Prussia, \vns-r, A Province Of Prussia, Bounded By The Baltic On The North. East Prussia On The Cast, Russian Poland And The Province Of Posen On The South, And The Provinces Of Brandenburg And Ponwrania On The West : Prussia. 11 2). Area, Over 9500 Square Miles. The Surface Is ...

Prynne
Prynne, Whaaam (1600-69). An English Political Polemist And Annalist. He Was Born Near Bath, Where He Received His Early Education. Afterwards Proceeding To Oriel College. Oxford, Where He Took His Bachelor's Degree In 1621. He Early Became Involved In Ecclesiastical Contro Versy, And Speedily Made Himself Heard As A Champion ...

Pryor
Pryor, Prriir, Roger Atkinson An American Journalist And Lawyer. He Was Born Near Petersburg, In Dinwiddie County. Va., Graduated At Hampden-sidney College In 1845. And At The University Of Virginia In 1848. And Studied Law. He Became Editor Of The Southside Democrat At Petersbnrg, And In 1854 He Was Called ...

Psalms
Psalms (from Gk. Itaxp.6c, Psahnos, Psalm, Hymn, Song ) Book Ta,'. According To The Jewish Camel, The First Book Of The Third Division Of The Old Known As Kcllifibini Or Hajio Grapha: Iii The Christian Canon The Second Book Of The Seethm. The Arrangement Of The Latter Was Allopted From ...

Pskov
Pskov. The Capital Of The Government Of The Same Name And One Of The Most Ancient Cities Of Russia. Situated On The Rivers Velikaya And Pskova, 17] Miles Southwest Of Saint Pe Tersburg (map: Russia. C 3). It Is Divided Into Two Parts. The Great City With The Krem Lin ...

Psyche
Psyche, (lat.. From Gk. Breath, Life, Soul, Butterfly. From :prixele, Psychcin, To Breathe). As A Mythological Character Psyche Is A Creation Of The Later Greek Speculation, And In Literature Is Scarcely Known Before The Story In Apuleius (q.v.). Here Psyche As The Youngest And Most Beautiful Of Three Daughters Of ...

Psychical Research
Psychical Research (from Psychic, Front Gk. Ipexuc6r, Pyehikos, Relating To The Soul Or Mind, From 1!./vx7,, Psyche, Breath, Life, Soul). The Term 'psychical Research' Takes Its Meaning From The Activities Of The Society For Psychical Research (q.v.), Founded In England In Is82. The Original Programme Of The Society Proposed A ...

Psychological Acoustics
Psychological Acoustics. The Least Notice Able Intensity Of Auditory Sensation Is Measured By Some Form Of Acoumef'r. The Stimulus Is Given By The Dropping Of A Tiny Hammer Upon A Steel Bar, By The Fall Of A Cork O• Pith Ball Upon A Glass Plate, Etc. Either The Sound Is ...

Psychological Apparatus
Psychological Apparatus. The Ap Paratus Employed In A Well-equipped Psychological Laboratory Falls Into The Following Main Divis Ions: (1) Physiological Models Of The Sense Or Gans And The Brain; (2) Demonstration Appara Tus, For Use In The Lecture Room Before A Large Audience; (3) Drill Apparatus, For Class Work With ...

Psychological Optics
Psychological Optics. Psychology Borrows From The Oculists Their Various Tests Of The Acuity Of Vision, And From _the Physicists Their Mani Fold Photometrical Devices. The Phenomena Of Color Mixture Are Studied By Means Of The 8/ac T/top/two/peter. Or (more Usually) By The Rotated Disks Of The Color-mixer. This Consists Essen ...

Psychology
Psychology (from Gk. :frux7), Psycla7, Breath, Life, Soul -noy/a, -login, Account, From Nlye/v, Legein, To Say). Psychology May Be De Fined As The Science Of Mind. More Exactly, It Is The Science Of Mind Considered For The Sake Of Mental Facts And Processes Alone, And Apart From Their Values Or ...

Psychophysics
Psy'chophys'ics (from Gk. 41,70), Psyche, Breath, Life, Soul C5vaik6s, Physikos, Physical, From Oticis, Physis, Nature, From Ch6eiv, Phyein, To Produce; Connected With Lat. Fui. I Was, Skt. Bluff, To Become, And Ultimately With Eng. Be). The Science Of The Inter-relations Of Mind And Body. The Term Was Coined By Fechner ...

Ptarmigan
Ptarmigan (with Inorganic Initial P, From Gael. Tar,aacioi(, Ir. Tarnioehon, Tannonach, Ptarmigan). A Kind Of Grouse, Differing From True Grouse (q.v.) Chiefly In Having The Tarsi And Toes Thitkly Clothed With Short Feathers. The Spe Are Natives Of Northern Or Greatly Elevated Regions. They Arc Not Polygamous Like The True ...

Pteridophytes
Pteridophytes, Ter'id-6-fits (xeo-lat. Nom. Pl., From Gk. Rrepts, Ptcris, Fern + Our6v, Phylon, Plant). The Fern-plants, One Of The Four Great Divisions Of The Plant Kingdom, Next In Order Of Rank To The Highest Group, The Flowering Or Seed Plants (spermatophytes). There Are Three Great Divisions Of Pteridophytes: ( 1 ...

Pterodactyl
Pterodactyl, T ( Neo-lat., From Gk. 7r-rep6p, ',knot. Feather, Wing + Ocittrvxos, Dekty(os, Finger). The Common Name For Any One Of The Living Lizards. Remains Of Which Are Found In The Mesozoic Rocks. There Are About Twenty Different Genera Of Pterodactyls. All In Eluded In The Order Pterosauria (wing-lizards), Stretched ...

Ptolemaic
Ptolemaic (tiil'e-na'ik) System. In Astronomy, A Planetary Theory Expounded By Ptolemy Lq.v.). It Was An Attempt To Reduce To A Scientific Form Common And Primitive No Tions Concerning The Motions Of The Heavenly Bodies. The Primary And Fundamental Doctrines Of This System Are That The Earth Is The C•entae Of ...

Ptolemy
Ptolemy (clarraus Ptolealeus). An An Cient Astronomer And Geographer. He Was A Native Of Egypt, Though It Is Uncertain Whether He Was Born At Pelusium Or At Ptolemais In The Thebaid. Nothing Is Known Of His Personal History, Except That Flourished In Alexandria In A.d. 139 And There Is Probable ...

Ptomaines
Ptomaines, T3'in5nz (from Gk. 71-r3f.a, Pto Ina, Corpse, From 7rirrefp, Pipteiit. To Fall : Connected With Petcsthai, To Fly, Lat. Pc/co-, To At Tack, Seek, Skt. Pat. To Fly, Fall). A Name Applied To A Class Of Poisonous Organic Substances Of Ani Mal Origin, Extremely Similar In Their Chemical And ...

Public Callings
Public Callings. Any Trade Or Calling Carried On By A Private Individual Or Private Corporation Which, Because Of Its Quasi Public Character, Has Certain Privileges As Well As Legal Obligations Which Do Not Attach To An Ordinary Private Trade Or Calling. The Business Of Com Mon Carriers And That Of ...

Public Law
Public Law. That Branch Of The Law Which Defines And Protects The Rights Which Sub Sist Between State And Subject, As Distinguished From That Which Affects The Rights That Subsist Be Tween Subject And Subject. In Public Law• The State, Which Defines And Protects The Right, Is A Party Interested ...

Public Policy
Public Policy. That Principle Of The Law Which Holds That No Person Can Lawfully Do That Which Has A Tendency To Be Injurious To The Public Or Against The Public Good. The Earliest Trace Of This Principle In English Law Reports Is Found In A Case Decided In The Second ...

Public Schools
Public Schools. A Term Usually Applied In The United States To The Institutions Main Tained At Public Expense For The Formal Education Of Children. The Idea Of Organizing Schools Where Rich And Poor Might Obtain Efficient Free Instruc Tion Did Not Take Firm Root In The Minds Of The People ...

Pueblo
Pueblo. The Second Largest City Of Colo Rado, The County-seat Of Pueblo County, And An Important Commercial And Industrial Centre, 120 Miles South By East Of Denver (map: Colorado, E 2). Situated In A Small Basin Near The East Ern Foot-hills Of The Rocky Mountains And On Both Sides Of ...

Pueblo
Pueblo, Pwebiti (sp., Village). A Name First Used By The Spaniards, And Later Adopted By The Americans, To Designate The Semi-civilized Agricultural And Sedentary Indians Dwelling In Adobe Or Stone-built Communal Houses In The Arid Region Of The Southwestern United States, Chiefly Along The Rio Grande And Its Tributaries. The ...

Puerperal Fever
Puerperal Fever (from Lat. Puerpera, Parturient Woman, From Puce, Child -i- Parere, To Bear), Pceneenat. Sepsis, Ciiii.dred Fever. A Fever Appearing In Puerperal Women Within A Week After Labor—usually From The Third To The Fifth Day—attended With Septic Infection Of The Blood And Acute Inflammation Of One Or More Of ...

Puerperal Insanity
Puerperal Insanity. A Term Applied To Mental Derangement Occurring During The First Six Weeks Of The Puerperal State. During The Great Changes Comprised In The Onset Of Labor And The Beginning Of Uterine Involution, With The Nerve Drain, The Rapid Metabolism Of Tissue And The Necessity For Sudden Adjustment To ...

Pufendorf
Pufendorf, Pnf'cri-d6rf, Samuel. Baron (1632-94). A Celebrated German Publicist. Horn At Chemnitz. In Saxony. He Began The Study Of Theology At Leipzig, But Speedily Turned To The Subject Of Public Law, Which He Pursued At ,lena Till 1657. In 1658 He Became Tutor In The Family Of Coyet, Swedish :minister ...

Puffin
Puffin (so Called From Its Pulted-out Beak). An Auk Of The Genus Fraterenla, Characterized By The High, Compressed Form Of The Beak. The Best Known Is The Common One (fratercula Arcti Ea) Of The Arctic And North Temperate Regions Generally, Which Migrates Southward In Winter As Far As Spain And ...

Pugilism
Pugilism (from Lat. Pagii, Boxer, From Pugnus, Fist; Connected With Gk. Irt)-pan, Pygme, Fist, Org. Fast, Ger. Faust, As. Fyst, Eng. Fist). Prize Fighting. The Practice Of Fighting For A Prize With The Fists Has From Earliest Times Been Peculiarly An Anglo-saxon Sport, But In Its Pro Fessional Aspect It ...

Pulci
Pulci, Lulu (1432-84). An Italian Poet, Born At Florence Of A Family Once Wealthy And Noted In The Fifteenth Century For Its Literary Attainments. Both Cosimo And Piero De' Medici Were His Patrons And Friends, And He Was On Terms Of Intimacy With Lorenzo The Magnificent. Pulci's Chief Work Is ...

Pulley Of
Pulley (of., Fr. Poulie, Probably From Lger. Paten, As. Pullian, Eng. Pull). A Circu Lar Wheel Turning On A Smooth Axle Through Its Centre, And With A Grooved Cut In Its Rim So That A Cord Can Run Around It. A 'fixed' Pulley Is One Whose Axle Is Fixed To ...

Pulse
Pulse (lot. Pulses, A Beating, From Pcllcre, To Drive). The Rhythmical Expansion Of The Arter Ies Due To The Blood-waves Caused By Successive Contractions Of The Heart. The Arteries Are Elas Tic Tubes And There Is Injected Into Them At Each Contraction Of The Heart Ventricles From Two To Four ...

Pulszky
Pulszky, Pnl'ske, Franz Altrel (1314-97). An Hungarian Politician And Author, Born In Eperies. He Studied Law, And Visited England, Where He Wrote In German And Hungarian A Us Deny Tagebaehe Tines In Grossb-ritannien Reisenden Ungarn (1837). In 1s39 He Entered The Diet As Member From Szlros. In 1848 He Became ...

Pultusk
Pultusk, Pnlqusk. A Town Of Russian Poland, In The Government Of Warsaw, Situ Ated On The Narev About 34 Miles North Of Warsaw (map: Russia, B 4). It Is A Well-built Town With An Old Castle, The Former Residence Of The Bishops Of Plotzk. It Is Noted As The Scene ...

Pump
Pump. See Pumps And Pumping Machinery. Pumpeilly, Raphael ( 1837— ). An American Geologist, Born In Owego, N. Y., And Educated In Hanover, Germany, And In The Mining Schools Of Paris And Freiberg, From 1854 To 1860. After Explorations In Corsica And In Arizona, Lie Received In 1861 A Commission ...

Punch
Punch (abbreviation Of Punchinello, From Fr. Polichinelle, From It. Poleinello, Clown, Buf Foon, Puppet, Diminutive Of Poleino, !pueblo, Child, Young Chicken, From Pm//us, Young Chicken, Young Of Any Animal). The Chief Personage In The Popular Comic Drama Of Punch And Judy, Per Formed By Means Of Puppets. See Puppet. The ...

Punch_2
Punch. An Important English Weekly Paper, Devoted To Humorous And Satirical Commentary On Current Events. Lt Is Doubtful If The Whole Story Of Its Origin Will Ever He Known, Lint The Consensus Of Opinion Seems To Be In Favor Of Crediting The Original Idea To Ebenezer Landells. A London Wood ...

Punctuation L
Punctuation ( L. Punet Uat Io, From Pit Twt Uu Re, Puncture, To Pierce). In Writing Or Printing, The Use Of Certain Marks Called Points, To Separate Sentences And Parts Of Sentences. Its Most Important Office Is That Of Preventing Am Biguity Or Obscurity. More Inelusively, Its Ob Ject Is ...

Punishment
Punishment (from Punish, From Of.. Fr. Punir, From Lat. Pun Ire, Ponirc, To Punish. From Iurna, Punishment. Expiation. Pain. From Gk. /mini'. Punishment; Connected With Gk. Skt. Ci, To Avenge). Pain Or Suf Fering Inflicted Because Of Some Misdeed. In Criminal Law The Word Punishment Is Used To Designate The ...

Punjab
Punjab, Pfin-jith', Or Panjab (hind., Five Rivers: The Thelain, Chenah, Ravi, Sutlej, Beas). A Northwestern Province Of British India (q.v.), Bounded On The North By The Northwest Frontier Province And Kashmir, On The East By Tibet And The United Provinces Of Agra, On The South By Rajputana And Sindh, And ...