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the German Reformed Reformed Church in the United States

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REFORMED CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES, THE ( GERMA.N REFORMED). A reli gious body founded by emigrants from the Pa latinate and other districts of Germany. Their first minister was Rev. Samuel Goldin. who came in 1710; their first church was founded at Ger mantown. Va., 1714: and their first perma nent pastor, who became the organizer of the Church. was Rev. J. P. Boehm, who organized the first at Falkner Swamp, Penn sylvania, in 1725. Their organization as a de nomination was completed by Rev. Michael Schlatter, who was sent by the Reformed Church of the Netherlands (1746) and organized their Synod (then called a Cletus) September 29. 1747. He revisited Europe in 1751, bringing back (1752) six young ministers who became the forerunners of others sent over by the Reformed Church of the Netherlands. The Church con tinued under the supervision of the Church in Holland till 1793, during which time that Church sent over 31 ministers and spent about .220.000 on the Pennsylvania churches. When the Church in Pennsylvania became independent in 1793 it numbered 22 ministers. 73 congregations, and about 15.000 members. After it had become independent it had to face two serious difficulties. One was the change of language from German to English, which caused friction in congregations and the loss of many of the young people. who became English before the Church, service did. The other difficulty was the lack of a theologieal seminary in which to train ministers. The old method had been for prominent minister: to train the young men privately, and three of them had founded what were virtually private theo logical seminaries: Rev. C. L. Becker. at Balti more; Rev. S. Helfl'enstein, at Philadelphia : and Rev. F. L. Herman, at Falkner Swamp. But this method proved insufficient to supply the number required. So time Synod of 1820 deter mined to found a theological seminary of its own. This was opened (1825) at Carlisle. re moved later to York and to Mercersberg. and is now located at Lancaster. Pennsylvania. After the seminary had been founded a classical school was connected with it which grew into Marshall College, later Franklin and Marshall College at Lancaster. This movement for the foundation of a Church, however. resulted in a division of the Church, as those who opposed the movement separated and formed a free synod in 1322, which in 1837 returned to the mother synod.

Meanwhile the denomination was spreading southward from Pennsylvania through Virginia to the Carolinas, and westward through Ohio, Indiana, and the Western States. Most of the

German churches in New York State went into the Dutch Reformed Church. A missionary so ciety was organized in 1326 which published (1828) the first Church paper, The Magazine of the Oerman Reformed Church (later called The Messenger). The western part of the Church founded Heidelberg College and Theological Sem inary ( 1850) at Tiffin, Ohio. A mission house to educate German ministers was opened at Frank lin, Wisconsin (1860). The call of Rev. J. W. Nevin in 1S40 and of Rev. Philip Schaff in 1844 prepared the way for the controversy about the Mercersburg theology (q.v.) and the liturgy. As the result of the liturgical movement the Provisional Liturgy was published (1757), the Order of Worship (1866), and the Lit urgy (1867). The Low Church party in the East founded Ursinus College (1870) at Col legeville and a theological school (1871) (now at Philadelphia). The liturgical controversy continued till 1875, broken only by the observ ance of the tercentenary of the Heidelberg, Cate chism in 1863, which led to a union of the Ea:t ern and Western sections of the Church in a Genera] Synod. In 1875 that General Synod appointed a peace commission. which later drew up a new liturgy. the Directory of Worship, which was adopted by the Church. Since the peace movement has been completed the Church has been increasing rapidly, gradually centring its work in the boards of the General Synod. Missions were opened in .Japan (1879), among the Indians in Wisconsin (1578), and in China (19001. Doctrinally the Church was cradled in Calvinism, as all its minister: scut by Holland were required to subscribe to the Calvinistic Confessions: but in 1844, under Dr. Nevin and Dr. Schaff, the mediating theology of Germany was introduced. The denomination numbered in 1902 3 synods, 58 classes. 1107 ministers, 243,929 mmbers, and about 750.000 adherents. Its contributions in 1901 were for benevolent objects and for congregational purposes. Consult: Dubbs.

tory of the Ocrman R'..formed Church (American Church History Series. vol. viii.. New York. 18951; Good. History of the Reformed ch•Irch in the ruited States. 1715-9.? (Reading, 18991 : id.. Historical Hand-Book (Philadelphia, 19021: Wono n of the Reformed Church (i1)..