GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. ( ) Econom Aspccts.—A large amount of capital is in vested in the liquor business—vast manufac turing plants (breweries and distilleries), and the property, fittings, and money paid for bonds and licenses necessary for the retail trade. For example, in June, 1896, there were 61S7 distilleries in the United States, producing 89,992,555 gallons, and 1S66 breweries, produc ing 1.11E636,750 gallons. The capital invested by 1924 firms was $269,270,249, and 41,425 peo ple were employed. National. State, county, and municipal governments often have an interest in the traffic, through the levying of taxes upon it. In 1896 liquor taxes amounted to $164,016, 401.6S. These taxes are important as revenues, especially to small localities. The cost of liquor drinking to the consumer is great, since the money spent on liquor is diverted from more use ful expenditures. Chicago's drink bill in 1S94 was 870,000.000. In 1896 the consumption per capita in the United States \vas 16.42 gallons. An important economic consideration for the community is the cost of maintaining criminals and paupers made so by the abuse of intoxicants.
(2) Relation to Poverty.—Drunkenness makes greater ravages among artisans than among paupers. Warner's tables show that it was the direct cause of distress only in 15.2S per cent. of the cases investigated. Drinking to excess is rather a symptom than a source of de generation, and develops in a people of natural strength exhausted by vice, overwork, and con ditions of life that undermine health. The chil dren of drunkards are frequently idiots or in sane.
(3) Legislative Aspects.—Various attempts have been made to control the liquor traffic by legislation, while certain regulations have al ways been considered necessary. The national Government, since 17S9, has placed internal reve nue taxes and some customs duties upon liquors. Congress also has passed laws regulating the sale of liquor to Indians and soldiers and the sale in the District of Columbia, and requiring the scientific study of temperance in the schools of the District of Columbia, military, Indian, and Territorial schools. In the States the meth
ods used to control the liquor traffic are: (I ) licenses; (2) local option; (3) prohibition; (4) dispensary system. it has been customary from the earliest times to license the sale of liquor. The modern issue has been that of high license ($500.00 or more), which its advocates claim lessens the number of saloons and improves their character. High licenses prevail in large cities. The laws of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania are considered the most successful. Local option has the advantage of the support of public opinion. The earliest laws were those of Con necticut (1839) and New York (1845). Prohi bition exists in Maine (1S40; in Constitution 1884), and Kansas (in Constitution ISSO), Iowa, and North and South Dakota. Kansas, how ever, has practically local option. There is no attempt at concealment, and since the hard times of 1890 the fines for breaking the law have been regularly counted upon as revenue by some cities. Vermont and New Hampshire, after a long experience with prohibition, have adopted local option. Where prohibition exists the ques tion of compensation for those engaged in the liquor traffic has come up for judicial decision. As a result the National Anti-Nuisance League was organized in 1SS8 to push cases. South Caro lina alone has the dispensary system, or State monopoly of the liquor traffic. The law was passed December 24, 1892. The advantages claimed for this system are: that personal profit is eliminated ; purity and an honest measure are guaranteed; treating is impossible: sales are made in the daytime and for cash, and the con comitant temptations are removed. Other laws relating to the liquor traffic regulate the hours of closing and the sale on Sunday. the sale to minors and drunkards, the situation of saloons and their accompaniments in the way of pool, games, theatres, or other attractions.