Schools of industrial or applied art have also reached their highest point of development on the Continent of Europe. In Austria and Ger many the Kunstgeirerbeachule, often connected with an extensive and admirably filled museum, is found in all the large cities. Courses in draw ing, painting, modeling, and design are provided, leading to some special branch of applied art. In some schools, notably those at Munich and Vienna, the handicraft side is prominent and much attention is given to practical work at carving, tuctal-chasing, *4 tabled glass, leather embossing, fresco painting, embroidery, porcelain painting, lithography, smithing, and other lines. In France are to be found not only the first schools of painting, sculpture, and architecture in the world, but also the most thoroughly organ ized provision for instruction in decorative and industrial art. The Government lends liberal support to the art schools, and assists in estab lishing new ones when the need of such is mani fest. Some are supported entirely by the State, and others are assisted through grants. All are under the direction of the Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Art. Excellent schools of applied art are to be found in all parts of France, often with a distinct trend of instruction to ward the industries prominent in the locality, as in the case of ceramics at Limoges and textiles at Roubaix. In Paris there are three schools which afford instruction in industrial art—the Ecole Nationale des Arts Thcoratifs, the Ecole Germain-Pilon, and the Ecole Bernard-Palissy; the first to teach the principles of design in relation to industrial art as a whole, the last with direct reference to certain trades, with a lib eral amount of workshop and laboratory practice. The great schools of the Government Science and Art Department (now under the Board of Educa tion for England and Wales) at South Kensing ton represent the most important provision for instruction in industrial art in Great. Britain. The work of these schools consists largely of drawing, painting, and modeling, and although the application of art to industry is counted as the main purpose of the institution, no practical work is attempted. A large number of smaller schools patterned upon the same model exist in other parts of Great Britain under the guidance and financial assistance of the Science and Art Department.
In the United States schools of applied art arc not numerous, and in few cases is a training in the practical application of design attempted. Prominent among the institutions affording in struction in this field are the Cooper Union (q.v.), of New York City; the School of 'Indus trial Art of the Pennsylvania Museum ; Pratt Institute (q.v.), Brooklyn, N. V.; Drexel Insti tute (q.v.), Philadelphia : the Maryland Insti tute, Baltimore: the Art Academy, Cincinnati; the Chicago Art Institute; the Rhode Island School of Design. Providence: and the Lowell School of Design, Boston.
Evening classes in science, drawing, design, and technical studies may well he considered in this second general group of schools. The Portbild
ungsackulen of Germany and Austria are both day schools and evening schools. Many communi ties make attendance upon such schools compul sory for both boys and girls between fourteen and seventeen years old, and such attendance is often a condition of employment. Freehand and me chanical drawing, and special instruction relating to the trades of the locality, are the principal subjects taught in such schools. In Vienna every prominent trade is represented by a special Fortbildungsschule, and Berlin supports a great number and variety of similar schools. Even ing industrial schools play an important part in the thickly populated manufacturing centres of Belgium, where, in such towns as Litge, Brus sels, and Seraing, thousands of workmen nightly receive scientific and technical instruction bear ing on their trades. There are many technical schools in Paris and other cities and towns of France that provide evening instruction. Tn most cases such evening classes are supported by commercial or industrial societies and bear upon the local industries.
Nowhere else is the organization of evening in dustrial classes carried to so high a point as in Great Britain. Through the system of examina tions and grants directed by the Science and Art Department, classes in drawing, modeling, design, mathematics, and many branches of science, are maintained throughout the United Kingdom. From 1879 to 1890 the City and Guilds of Lon don Institute performed a similar function for technical and industrial classes. By their liberal financial assistance through examination grants, not only were all manner of technical courses organized throughout the country, but practical trade classes were opened to broaden and further the experience of those engaged in the trades. The act of 1889 which authorized local author ities to build and maintain technical schools, and to contribute to evening technical classes out of the local rates, followed by the law of 1890 which set aside a portion of the excise duties for the support of such schools. rendered the financial assistance of the Institute no longer essential, and since 1890 that association has confined its grants to classes in the city of London. The Institute continues its functions as an examining body, and is recognized as setting the standard for all work in this field.
In the United States such evening schools are rapidly assuming an important place. The free evening classes of the Cooper Union have pro vided an opportunity for thousands of young men to advance themselves. The evening classes of the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn. N. Y., represent an important and highly developed example of such instruction. Worthy of mention are also the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia ; the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, New York City; the drawing school of the Franklin Insti tute, Philadelphia ; the Lewis institute, Chicago; and the evening classes conducted by Young Men's Christian Associations all over the country.