THE AMERICAN SCHOOL. The earliest Ameri can work consisted almost. entirely in the reproduction of English book illustrations for American reprints. The first artist of impor tance was Alexander Anderson (1775-1870), who engraved blocks after Holhein's Dance of Death, Bewick's British Quadrupols, and other English works. Ile adopted the manner of Bewick. and his original blocks were the best engraved at that time outside of his master's immediate circle. The best wood-engraving of the first half of the nineteenth century was by Joseph Alexander Adams, whose original designs rank with the best English contemporaries. The Civil War in terfered for a time with the new magazines which now offered chief employment to the en gravers. The best work of the period before 1870 is to be found in the refined, delicate cuts of A. V. R. Anthony, the detailed, careful illustra tions of Henry :Marsh. as in Harris's Insects Harmful to Vegetation (1862), and, especially, in the engravings of William James Linton (d. 1S99), who came from England to America in 1868. In his writings, as well as his masterly work, ranking with the best ever done, he was the champion of the methods of Bewiek against the manipulative methods of the new school.
The last and most characteristic phase of the American development began in the years fol lowing 1870. in connection with the popular magazines, whose enormous circulation depended to a large extent upon their illustrations. The public demand being for the nearest possible re production of time originals, a school of engravers arose who accomplished this to a very remarkable extent—rendering the brush work and impost(' of painting, the technical effects of etching. chalk drawing, and the like. This was remitted pos sible by photographing directly on the block the original. which was retained by the artist as a guide. The technical mastery acquired by the new school was soon employed in original work of a. high order, especially in landscapes en graved from nature directly upon the block, and in portrait heads of great brilliancy and power. The recent perfection of photographic. processes (see Puoro-EN'atAVING) has, to some extent. re moved the raison d'i're of wood-engraving of the new school, and the great American engravers have returned to a more legitimate practice of the art.
The head of the American school, and prob..
ably its most remarkable technician, is Timothy Cole. Another important exponent of modern methods was the late Frederick Juengling. El bridge Kingsley is known for his fine landscapes directly from nature, while Gustav Killen fol lows the methods of Linton. Other important names are W. 11. Closson, who has done good work from nature; E. S. King, who imitated copper with great success; and Frank French, known Ii his New Emdand scenes.
The technical processes of wood-engraving have in recent years been much improved both as regards the tools used in cutting the wood, such as the graver, chisels, etc.. and the printing presses, the most perfect of which are in America. The process of electrotyping, by coat ing the woodcut with a thin film of metal, enables the printer to make an indefinite number of impressions, or by reproducing the block in metal to seeure facsimiles for commercial pur poses. For the important development of wood engraving and color printing in Japan, which lies outside of the sphere of the Western evolu tion, see JAPANESE ART.
BinuounAenv. Early treatises are those of Papillon (Paris, 1766), Heinecken (Leipzig. 1771), and Jansen (Paris, 1808) ; but really critical treatment began in the historical works of Ileller (Bamberg. 1822), Ottley (London, 1846), and Chatto 1861). Among good modern histories are those of Delaborde (Paris, 1882). Woodbury (London, 1883), and in his Gesehichte der graphisehen Kiinste (Leip zig, 1890) ; and especially liusters of Engraving, by W. J. Linton (London and New Haven, 1882). united to a remarkable extent the qnalities of scholarship with practical engraving. For the works of the old German school, consult Von Liitzow', Gcschichte des deutsche?! Kupferstiehs and Holzschnitts (Berlin, 1889) ; ,Nluther, Die deutsche Biicherillustration der Gothilz und der Friihrenaissancc (Alunich, 1SS4). For the American school, see Baker, American Engravers aml Their Work (Philadelphia, 18751 ; Linton, History of Wood Engraving in America (ib., ISS4). See also Bering, Anlcitung zur Holz sehncidchunst (Leipzig, 1873). and De Lostalot, Les Koeedes de la grarure (Paris, 1SS2).