WOF'FORD COLLEGE. An institution of higher learning at S. C., founded in 1853 by a legacy of $100,000 from the Rev. Benjamin Wofl'ord, The institution is under the control of the _Methodist Church, South. It offers an academic course leading to the bachelor's degree, and maintains a preparatory school on the college campus. The courses of instruction are arranged in four groups, within which con siderable freedom of election is permitted after the sophomore year. The campus of 70 acres contains 19 buildings. together valued at $204, 000. In 1903 the students numbered 295 and the faculty 11. The library contained 10,000 vol umes. The endowment was $75.000, with an in come of $17.000. Extension work is carried on through lectures.
WoHLER, FRIEDRICH (1S00-82). A German chemist, horn near Frankfort-on-the Main. lie was educated at the Gymnasium at Frankfort, then studied medicine and ehemistry at the universities of Marburg and Heidelberg, and subsequently worked under the direetion of Berzelins at Stockholm. In 1825 he returned to Berlin and was invited to teach ehetuistry at the newly established industrial school of that Pity. In 1831 he received a similar appointment at Cassel. lit 1836 lie was made professor of chemistry in the medical department of the Uni versity of I;i?ttingen and inspector-general of the pharmacies of Ilanover. lie (lied at (36)tin gen. Milder is justly considered as one of the founders of organic chemistry, his name being connected with the most important discoveries in the early history of the seience. In 1828 he
effected the synthesis of urea—the first organic compound produced by artificial laboratory means. without the agency of life. The first eases of isomerism (i.c. the 4.xistoucc of different compounds having the same composition) were likewise observed by Milder (see CI1EMI STEN' ) CARBON COM POUNDS ) and DO less a contribution was formed by the classical research on the benzoyl compounds, earriml out by \Wilder in conjunction with Lieldg. ( See CuEmisraY, his torical section.) Many other results of impor tance were achieved by Wilder in all branches of chemistry. lie isolated the elements aluminum, &villain, yttrium. )and titanium, and founded the nickel industry by devising a process of manufacturing the pure metal on a large settle. As a teacher, too, lie teas brilliant. and many sided. IIis arundriss der Chcmie and Die .1lin eralanalyse in Beispielen passed through numer ous editions and were translated into several languages. lie also edited in Gernian Ilerzelius's voluminous Lehrbitch der Chentie and Jahres berichtc. Hofmann published an exeellent biog raphy of W6h1er in the lterichlr der dculschtat ehemischen Gesellschaft (1882), and edited .pus Justus Liebiqs Pricdrich Waters urchfal (1888). \Valet- published the results of his investigations in Liebig's A nnalen der Chemie mind Phurmucir, of which he became co editor in 1838. In 1890 a monument was erected to his memory at Giittingen.