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Worlds Columbian Exposition

building, style, architecture, feet, roof, pavilions, renaissance, central, ing and chicago

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WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION. _\n international exposition held in Chicago, ..111., from May 1 to October 30, 1893. It had been pro posed to celebrate the four hundredth anniversary of the landing of Columbus by a universal expo sition, to be held in the United States, and the claims of New York, Washington, Saint Louis, and other cities as suitable places in which to hold such an exposition were strongly urged. Chicago, however, was successful in Congress, and accordingly on April 25, 1890, a bill was approved providing for the celebra tion of "The Four Hundredth Anniversary of the Discovery of America by Christopher Colum bus by holding an International Exhibition of Arts, Industries, Manufactures, and the Products of the soil, mines, and sea, in the City of Chi cago." A World's Columbian Commission was authorized, of which Thomas W. Palmer became president, by whom George R. Davis was ap pointed director-general. The funds for the Ex position consisted of $10,000.000 raised by the city of Chicago, a loan of $2.500.000 from Con gress, debenture bonds for $5,000,000 issued by the Exposition authorities, together with mis cellaneous contributions from various sources of about $3.000,000, making a total fund of about $20.000,000 that was available for use before the opening clay. A site was chosen in daekson Park in the southeastern part of Chicago. on the shore of Lake Michigan, covering an area of (1011 acres, where 150 different buildings erected.

The work of designing and construction was placed under the charge of a Bureau of Construction, of which Daniel 11: Burnham was made chief. The principal buildings were constructed of a composition called stall, con sisting of a mixture of plaster of Paris, with little cement, glycerin, and dextrin. in water, which at a short distance gave the effect of mar ble. This appearance led to the name of White City, by which the Exposition subsequently be came generally known. The following were the' larger buildings: Administration Building, by Richard M. Hunt. in the style of the French Renaissance, snrmounted by a glided dome which formed one of the many youspienous objects on the ground. Agricultural Building, by NcK.ini, Mead White, in the classic Renaissa TRY style of architecture, with mammoth Corinthian pillars on either :side of the main entrance. Electrical Building, by Van Ilrunt Ilowe, in the thian style of architecture. Fine Arts Build ing, by C. B. Atwood, in the Greek-lonie or der and a pure type of the most relined classieal architecture. On three sides of the main building and conneeted with it by corridors were Largo annexes. The main building was entered by four great portals richly ornamented with archi tectural sculpture and approached by broad flights of steps. Forestry Building, in the rustic style of architecture, with a. veranda, supporting the roof of which was a colon nade consisting of a series of columns com posed of tree trunks in their natural state A% ith bark undisturbed, which were contributed by the different States and Territories of the Union and by foreign countries, each furnishing specimens of its most characteristic trees. The main en trances were elaborately finished in different kinds of wood, the material and workmanship be ing contributed by various lumber associations. The roof was thatched with tan and other harks.

Fisheries Building, by Henry 1. Cobb, in the Spanish style of architecture, consisting of a large central structure with two small polyg onal buildings connected with it on either end by arcades. The roof was of old Spanish tiles and the side walls in a pleasing color. The exterior of the building exhibited innu merable forms of capitals, modillions, brack ets. cornices, and other ornamental details of which fish and other sea forms served as the motives of the designs. Government Build ing, by \V. J. Edbrooke, in the classical style of architecture, constructed of iron and glass, with an imposing central dome 120 feet in diameter and 150 feet high. It con tained the exhibits of the various departments of the Government, as well as that of the Smith sonian Institution. Horticultural Building, by \V. L. B. Jenney, embracing a central pavilion with two end pavilions, each con nected with the central one by a front and rear curtain forming two interior courts: these courts were beautifully decorated in color and planted with ornamental shrubs and flowers. The centre of the pavilions was roofed by a crystal dome, under which were exhibited the tallest palms, bamboos, and tree ferns that could be procured. In each of the pavilions there were galleries. Machinery Hall. by Peabody & Stearns, was in the best type of the Span ish Renaissance style. At the first story a covered loggia furnished a promenade which en circled the entire building:. The building was spanned by three arched trusses, and the in terior presented the appearance of three rail way train-houses side by side. Manufac tures and Liberal Arts Building, by George B. Post, was in the Corinthian style of architecture, and was the largest exposition build ing ever constructed up to that time. The princi pal thoroughfare of the building, called Columbia Avenue, extended longitudinally and was 50 feet wide. while an avenue of like width crossed it at right angles at the centre. The main roof was of iron and glass and arched an area 1400 feet long by 3S5 feet wide. The cost was 81,700.000. Mines and ..)lining Building. by S. S. Beman, in the early Italian Renaissance style, had columns and arches overhanging the principal entrances, which were richly decorated with sculptured groups and other embellishments emblematic of mining and its allied industries. Between the main entrances and the pavilions were ornamen Lid arcades forming an open loggia on the ground floor. Transportation Building, by Adler & Sullivan, in the Romanesque style of architecture, with its interior treated similarly to a Roman basilica, with broad naves and a isles. The roof was in three divisions, the middle one of which was higher than the others, and was surrounded by a cupola that ruse 165 feet above the ground. The main entrance consisted of an immense single arch enriched with carvings, bas-reliefs, and mural paintings coated with gold-leaf. whence its of the Golden Doorway. Woman's Building. by Miss Sophia I% Hayden. in the Italian Renaissance style of arc•hiteetnre, was two stories in height, with an open rotunda. 70 by 65 feet, which reached through the height of the building and was proteeted by a richly orna mented skylight. The rotunda was surrounded by a two-story open arcade producing an effect similar to that of the Indian courtyard.

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