WOUWERMAN, Plumes (1619-68). A Dutch animal painter, born at Haarlem. His landscapes show the influence of Jan Wynants and his figures that of Pieter de Laar, under whom it is supposed that he studied; another supposition is that he was a pupil of Verbeek. Ile is recorded as a member of the Painters' Guild in 1642, and died May 19, 1668. Wouwerman's art is the culmination of Dutch painting as regards the combination of figures and landscape. Both are treated with equal mastery, neither being subordinate, yet without loss of the harmony of the picture. lie was, above all else, the painter of the horse, which he portrayed engaged in all of its ser vices to mankind; in battle and hunting scenes, the pampered riding or carriage horse of the rich, the overworked cart horse of the poor. The centre of his pictures is usually a white or gray horse, upon which the high light is concen trated. The human figures, from cavalier to beggar, are equally well done. \Vouwermnan is in all respects a brilliant draughtsman, and his composition is faultless. His landscapes belong to the very best of the Dutch school, being es pecially good in aerial perspective. The tone is a silvery gray, giving play to a harmonious coloring with fine discrimination of values. Ile was a most prolific painter, above eight hundred works being ascribed to him, besides the many figures he painted for the landscapes of others. Dresden possesses sixty-four; then come Saint Petersburg with fifty, the Cassel and Munich gal leries with twenty, and the Louvre and various English collections.
His younger brother PIETER ( 1623-82) de veloped under Philips's influence, and painted similar• subjects. His work is more detailed in execution and darker in color. Though far in ferior to his brother, he copied the latter's pie tures with success. Many of the works ascribed to Philips are probably by his brother. The works of JAN (1629-66 ) , the youngest mem ber of the family. represent moonlight scenes and sand dunes, and are extremely rare. He was probably a pupil of Wynants. Consult: Wurzbach, in Dame, Kunst (Ind K Unsticr lleutschlands !Did der Niederlande ( Leipzig, 1878) ; and Kiimmerer, Ueber die Composition in Won wermans Gemalden lib., WOVO'KA (('utter), or .1.?ct: WILSON (e.1856—). A Piute Indian prophet of Nevada, the originator of the Messiah o• Ghost Dance religion. born in Mason Valley, west of Walker Lake, Nevada. On his father's death, about
1870, the boy was taken into the family of David Wilson, a white ranchinan from whom he got the name by rvluic•h lie is commonly known among this whites. 1u the war of 1888-89 he was stricken with a severe fever during IvIdell the Pilaf were thrown into great excitement by in eclipse of the sun. \\•ovoka fell into delirium eulminat Mg in a trance, during which he thought he saw• the nod of the Indians and all the lndians who had died engaged in their old-lime sports and oceupations, :is before the white map en me. lie NV:1,; given a revelation and a dance which he was commanded to communicate to I .I.ti people, with the promise that by strictly observing the doctrines and cere monial they would be enabled to rejoin their departed friends in a new Indian (•arth which was rapidly approaching from the west, stoeked with game and everything of the old Indian life, and which would slide over the present earth, driving the whites Icfoe it to the land beyond the water from which they had originally emne. In the same connection he was to preach the brother hood of the Indian race, and the abolition of tribal warfare, the war dance and all that savored of war; to forbid laceration, destruction of prop erty, and excessive grief at funerals. and to per mit the equality of women in ceremonial affairs. On his return from the spirit world he at once began to preach the new doctrine, which, in spite of its prohibition of their cherished war and funeral customs, appealed strongly to the Indians for the hope it held out of a happy future. The songs and dances of the ceremonial, popularly known as the Ghost Dance, soon became general among the Pinte (q.v.), and the report spread to other tribes across the mountains, which sent delegations to interview and receive instructions from 'the Messiah' until the Ghost Dance had spread to nearly all the Indian tribes from the Sierras to the Missouri River, and from the Canadian frontier almost to the :Mexican border. Among the Sioux (q.v.) the religious ferment intensified a feeling of dissatisfaction over cer tain treaty grievances, resulting in the war of 1S90-91. The dance reached its highest point about a year later, after which the excitement rapidly owing to the failure of the prophecies at the appointed time. It exists now only as a semi-soeial affair. Consult Mooney, The Ghost Dance Religion (Washington, 1896).