WUNDT, tuft, WILHELM A Ger man physiologist, psychologist, and philosopher, born at Neekaran, in Baden. He studied from 1851 to 1856 at Tiibingen, Heidelberg, and Berlin, specializing in medicine. In 1557 he qualified as privat-docent in physiology at Heidelberg. where he became assistant proV.s.sor in 1864. After serving one year as professor of philosophy at Zurich, he was finally called to a similar po sition at Leipzig in 1875. lie published the following works: Die !Are roe der Musket beiregung (1858) ; Beitriige zur Theoric der i nesleah rneh m ng (1862) ; jibe?. die 31r:schen- and Tier-serle (1863, 3d ed. 1897; Eng. trans.. Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology, 2d ed. MO Lchrbuch der Phy siologir des Mensehen (1865, 4111 ed. 1878) : Die physikalischen .1-riomc und ihre Beziehung zein Kausalnrincip (1866) : Ilandbuch der medi zinisele n Physik (1867) ; L Zur Meehan& dcr und Nercencentren der physiologischca Psychologie (1874; 5th ed. 1903)1 Der Spiritismus, eine n(1,10r wissensehaftliche (1879) ; Logik, eine LThtcrsuchrng der Prineipien der Er7,•enntnis and der Methode +c•issenschaffliel+cr Farschung (isso.$3: 2d ed. 1893-95) ; Essays (1885) ; Ethik. eine Untersuchung der Thatsachen and Ocsetze des sittlichen. Lebens (1886; Eng. trans., Ethics: An lnrestigatio•n of the Pacts and Laws of the Moral Life, 1897-1901); Macal der litterarischen Kritik (1SS7) ; System dcr Phi losophic ( 1889; 2d ed. 1897) ; Ilypnotismns and suggestion (1892); Grundriss der Psychologie (1896; 2d ed. 1897; Eng. trans., Outline of Psy chology, 1897) ; l'idkerpsychologie, eine suchung der Enteeicklungsgeset;c von Spraehe, Mythes end Sitte, i. (1900). In 1Stil Wundt instituted a periodical. the Philosophische Stu dien, for the purpose of publishing the work of the psychological laboratory at Leipzig. Founded by him in 1878-70, this was the first laboratory devoted solely to the experimental investigation of mental processes.
From the foundation of the Leipzig laboratory and of the Studien came the effective impulse which has led to the institution of many if not all of the other laboratories for the systematic investigation of experimental psychology in both Europe and America. Wundt is thus not only
the leading German representative of what is ordinarily termed 'modern psychology,' but, in a certain sense, its creator. He alone treated it in all its area ; lie alone had sufficient breadth of outlook, sufficient training, and sufficient sym pathy to unite in one science the work of Her bart, Weber, Fechner, and Lotze. In his 'For Icsungen, but more especially in his classical Grunikitge, the standard text-book of the science, he effected the union of the various disjointed movements then existing, the mathematical, the experimental, the psyehophysical, and the physi ological. Wundt defines psychology as the 'sci ence of immediate experience:' the natural sci ences are abstractions from experience. Never theless. his psychology starts from physiological facts, and seeks, by variation of external condi tions, to discover the elementary psychical facts which are correlated with them; it works from without inward. But the end is to construct psychology. Physiology, however valuable it may be as an avenue of exploration or as a basis for explanation, is hut a means toward this end. Consult Ribot, German Psychology of To Day (Eng. trans., New York, 1886).
WURMSER, VM1'111'ar, DAGOBERT SIEGMUND, Count von (1724-97). An Austrian field marshal, born in Strassburg. Ile entered the French service in 1741 and distinguished himself during the Seven Years' War. In 1762 he en tered the Austrian Army as colonel. At the out break of the wars of the French Revolution he was given command of the forces beyond the Rhine and prevented the French from relieving Mainz 11793). took Mannheim (November 23, 1795), and in the summer of 1796 became 6041 mar-11:11 and succeeded Beaulieu in 'Italy. While attempting to relieve :Mantua, which was besieged by the Freneh, the two diviaions of his a nu were successively routed by Napoleon. and Wurmser himself was forced to take refuge in the beleaguered city. It fell in 1797 (February 2.1) after a siege of nine months, but Wurmser was permitted to go free.