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Wurttemberg

king, kingdom, cent, south, country, feet, danube, southwest and dom

WURTTEMBERG, vurt't6m-berK. A king dom of the German Empire in Southwestern Germany, bounded by Bavaria on the northeast, east. and southeast, by Baden on the south, southwest, west, and northwest, and in addition on the south by Lake Constance, which separates it from Switzerland, and by Hohenzollern, which in an oblong form penetrates the country in the southern part (Map: Germany, C 4). \\'iirltem berg has small enclaves in Baden and Hohen zollern, and incloses three enclaves of Hesse. The area is 75'28 square miles.

Wfirttemberg is in general a region of hills and mountains. It is a western part of the South German upland. A portion of the Black Forest is in the southwest where the loftiest point of the kingdom is found at its extreme western point-3820 feet. The Swabian Jura or Rauhe Alb crosses the kingdom from southwest to north east. Its highest elevation is 3327 feet. South east is the high Danube plateau, with an eleva tion of about 2000 feet. The Danube crosses the country from southwest to northeast, leaving it at Ulm. In the north of the kingdom is a fertile lowland country—hills, level valleys, and dales— descending gradually to the north with the Neckar and its numerous tributaries coursing through to the northwest, where the altitude falls as low as 500 feet. About one-quarter of the country is level land. The climate is moderate and agreeable. with a yearly mean of 40' in the mountains and 50°, of a little less, in the Neckar valley. There are nearly 75 mineral springs.

The mining output is not large. Salt and iron are obtained. \Vtirttemberg is essentially an ag ricultural country and about one-half of the pop ulation is connected with agriculture. Of the area, 64 per cent. is tilled, and 31 per cent. is in forest (conifers and beech), the forests being thoroughly exploited and forming a promi nent part of the wealth. Most of the farms are between 214 and 25 acres in size. The largest acreages are, in their order, hay, spelt, oats, clover, barley, and potatoes. Fruit-raising and the live-stock interests are prominent. Coopera tive dairying is extensively carried on. In 1900 there were 1.017,683 cattle, 112,129 horses, 315, 965 sheep, and 512.485 swine. The manufactures have in recent years rapidly developed. There is a large output of sugar, iron, and textiles. Other products are gold and silver work, musical and scientific instruments, bells, chemicals, paper, and wood-carving, and the products of celebrated machine shops at Esslingen. The kingdom leads in book-publishing in Southern Germany. Com mere° is lively and is being actively fostered and developed. The transit trallic is important. Grain, cattle, wood, salt, fruit, and manufactured articles of ninny kinds are exported. The Neckar is navigable by steamboats to Heilbronn, and ITIm stands at the head of navigation on the Danube.

Witrttemberg, is a constitutional monarchy. The Constitution dates from 1819. The Land

:Mimic, nr Parliament, consists of two Houses ('estates'), which assemble at least every three years. The members of the higher chamber, or House of Standesherren, are the royal princes, per sons named by the King, and the representatives of twenty mediatized houses. Its president is ap pointed by the King. The deputies of the lower chamber consist of 13 nobles, 6 Evangelical and 3 Catholic dignitaries, the head of Tilbingen Uni versity, 7 representatives from towns, and 03 from rural districts. The deputies are chosen for six years without property qualification. Citizens voting must be above twenty-five. The Ministry of State comprises six departments—Just iee, War, Finance, Interior, Religion and Education, For eign Affairs, and the Royal House. There is a. privy or advisory council, composed of the Minis tries and councilors. Administratively the king dom is divided into 4 cireles—Neekar, Black For est (Schwarzwald) , Jagst, and Danube. It sends 4 members to the national Bundesrat and 17 to the Reichstag. The expenditures of the king dom for 1902-03 were about $22,300.000, the reve nues $22,S00,000. The chief items of expendi ture were Imperial contributions, national debt, and religion and education (over 15 per cent.) ; the chief sources of income were Imperial re ceipts, railway revenues, direct taxes, and forests, farms, and mines. The public debt amounts to about $125,000,000, mostly bearing 31/2 per cent. However, the debt, with the exception of a small fraction, is for railways, and is accordingly offset by the railroad property of the kingdom. In 1901 there were 1300 miles of railway, 1100 of which were owned by the Government. Stutt gart is the capital.

The population in ]900 was 2,169,480; density per square mile, 288.2. \Viirttemberg ranks fourth in population among the German States. The annual emigration, mainly to the United States, dropped from 6445 in 1888 to 1061 in 1901. The people are mostly Swabians. About 70 per cent. of the population is Protestant. The King is, under the Constitution, the guardian and director of the Evangelical Church. It is ad ministered by a consistorium composed of a president, 9 councilors, and 6 superintendents. The Catholics are under a bishop, who, however, can only act together with a Catholic council named by the Government. The Jews are under a council appointed by the King. In educational matters \Viirttemberg holds high rank. Instruc tion is compulsory. Practically every person above ten can read and write. The University of Tfibingen stands at the head of the educational system. Among other institutions there are the great Polytechnic Institute at Stuttgart, a famous conservatory of music at the same place, and agricultural, industrial, and special schools of every variety, including a school of viticulture at \Veinsherg. There are numerous scientific, art, and literary organizations.