WURZBURG, vnrts'brMrK. The capital of Lower Franconia, Bavaria. 81 miles by rail northwest of Nuremberg (Map: Germany, D 4). It is almost wholly situated on the right bank of the navigable Main, which is here erossed by three bridges (two of them new). The fortifica tions were entirely removed by 1874. The old, or inner, city is separated from the modern and handsome suburbs by broad and agreeable promenades, into which the beautiful Hofgarten blends on the east.
The Hofgarten dates from 1729 and contains an orangery. The handsome new law courts rise a short distance away on the south. The rococo royal palace, formerly the episcopal residence, a splendid edifice of the first half of the eighteenth century, situated in the Hofgarten, is the centre of interest to the visitor. Here are the Residenz platz, and the elaborate modern Liutpold foun tain. West of the palace is the uninteresting cathedral, a Romanesque basilica, tracing its origin back to 8G2. In its present form it dates from 1240. The exterior was restored in I8S2-83. Adjacent to the cathedral is the rococo Neu mfinster Church, with a red facade, belonging to the eighteenth century. It has a tablet to Wal ther von der Vogelweide, who was buried in the ancient cloisters here. Near by on the west is the old market place with the beautiful Chapel of Mary. This graceful Gothic structure dates from 1377, and was restored in the nineteenth century.
To the south, beyond the mediteval town hall, rise in the modern quarter the new buildings of the university. (See WURZBURG, UNIVERSITY OF.) The University Church, with Gothic fea tures. belongs to the later sixteenth century, and the Seminary Church to the later part of the eighteenth century. In the northern part of the city are the Ludwigshalle, where expositions are held, and the Julius Hospital, a venerable institu tion. In the northwest corner of \Viirzburg, near the river, are the anatomical, physical, patho logical, and other institutes belonging to the university.
The fine old Main bridge (1474) leads from the central part of the city to the town as the left bank, where the Saint Burkard Church, with its and the Marienberg fortress com mand the attention. The former is a Romanesque structure, begun in 1033. The Marienberg, now
used as barracks, stands on a hill over 400 feet above the river. There are a royal music school, and schools of agriculture, horticulture, etc. Wiirzburg is an active industrial town. Ma chinery, railway ears, pianos, seientifie and musical instruments, and tobaeeo are among the principal mannfaetures. Famous brands of beer are produced in the city. The wine trade is im portant, and fruit, coal, and timber also furnish heavy shipments. Population, in 1900, 75,497.
Witrzburg became an episcopal seat in the mid. dle of the eighth century. It early grew wealthy and important. The bishops of Wilrzburg were prominent in their capacity as temporal princes, their domain finally having an area of about 1900 square miles. They bore the title of Duke of Franconia. The bishopric was secularized in 1801 and assigned in 1803 to Bavaria. By the Peace of Pressburg, in 1805, the principality was transferred to Ferdinand III., the dis possessed Grand Duke of Tuscany. In pursuance of the acts of the Congress of Vienna (1814-15), it passed again to Bavaria. The Prussians en tered the town on August 2, 1866.
WtRZBURG, UNIVERSITY OF. A German university, founded in 1402 by Bishop Johann von Egloffstein and confirmed by a bull of Pope Boniface 1X. in the same year. The institution was reorganized in 1582 by Prince Bishop Julius Echter von Slespelbrunn on the medieval pat tern, as a Catholic university. Tt soon became the Mecca for Catholic students not only of Ger many, but of other European countries. The care of the faculties of theology and philosophy was left to the Jesuits, who carried on the instruc tion until the suppres-sion of the Order in 1773. The faculty of law was reorganized in 1776 and that of medicine in 1807. With the union of Wiirzburg to Bavaria began a new era for the in stitution. It soon rose to an eminent position among German universities. Its medical faculty particularly stands high. In 1902 it consisted of the faculties of theology. law and political science, medicine. and philosophy. It had in that year an attendance of 1235. The library, founded by Karl von Dalberg, which includes the original collections, contains over 350,000 volumes.