XENOCRATES, zA-na'ra-tr.z (T.at., from (1k. Zevwcpd-rn ) (n.c. 396-314). An ancient philosopher, born at Chaleedon. At an early age lie attached himself to Plato, who took great care in developing his mental powers. which were naturally slow. On the death of Speusippus he succeeded to the presidency of the Academy (n.c. 339), Ile is said to have been the first to distin guish the three parts of philosophy—dialectic, physics, and ethics; he also recognized three classes of essences, the sensible, the intelligible, and the intermediate, which can be grasped by the intellect and perceived by the senses. The sensible he taught was within the heavens, while that which was intelligible lay beyond. The in termediate or heavenly essence was identical with the heavens themselves, for it was possible to per ceive these and to contemplate them scientifical ly. The soul, he held, was self-moving num ber, and happiness consisted in the possession of that virtue which is proper to the individual. He introduced into the teachings of the Academy the mystic Pythagorean doctrine of numbers more fully than it had been employed before, and combined these numbers with the Platonic ideas.
In person he was of irreproachable character, well balanced, and temperate in all things. His integrity was so unanimously known that an anecdote says that he was absolved from the neoessity of taking oath when obliged to give evidence, and that Philip of Macedon said that Xenocrates was the only ambassador who had ever come to him whose friendship he was not able to purchase. Famous also were his resist ance to the charms of Lais, the celebrated Athenian het era, and his success in converting the young roue Polon° into an earnest and vir tuous man. Consult: Bitter and l'reller, His toria Philosophise Gra'CCE (Sth ed.. Gotha, 1898) ; Zeller, Philosophic der Grirchen (4th ed., vol. i., Leipzig, 1901) ; Ueherweg, History of Philosophy, vol. i. (Eng. trans., New York, 1872).