The Defender was designed by N. G. Herres hoff, of Bristol. 11. I. She used a keel instead of a centreboard to obtain lateral plane. She was S5.5 feet long on the water line, 23.25 wide, and 19.33 draught. She displaced 143 tons. Valkyrie III., designed by G. L. 'Watson, was 26.17 feet wide, to a water-line length of 88.9. She dis placed 158 tons. Although her draught was 20 feet, the cross-section of her hull, exclusive of her fin-keel, was something like that of the American These facts are important because the Defender was designed to the narrow model through the influence which British cutters had bad on American yachtsmen, while the l'alkyrie was built to the wide model for two memorable reasons: it had become apparent that increase of sail area (or driving power) could be obtained more advantageously by adding to the width of the hull than by increasing the cargo of lead on the keel; the British Yacht Racing Association. see ing the advantage of wide beam, had abolished (1886) the old rule of measurement altogether, and substituted the simple rule that considered the water-line length and sail area only—Rating = L X S 6000. •This freed the hand of the British designer.
Meantime (1891) an epoch-making yacht ap peared—the Gioriana, designed by N. G. Herres hod'. The memorable features of her model in clude a long overhang at each end, and a straight line bow in place of the hollow vertical wedge. Whore the .1 mcrica had shown hollow lines the Gloriana had convex. The Gloriana started in eight races her first year and Won 011`111 The Moriana was 45.25 feet long on the water line and 70 over all. The advantages of overhangs at each end were: They added to the initial stability; lengthened the fore and aft lines of the hull. thereby refining the angle presented to the water, and thus the heaping up of water un der the be bow in windward work was avoided. As flu' racer heeled, the overhangs were pressed into the water, thus lengthening the water-line length, and increasing the lateral plane for wind ward work.
The absurd 'knife-blade' model had been slow 1y dying since the defeat of the Genesta and the Galatea. With the advent of the Gloriana the illusion that a racer must necessarily have a sharp, vertical-wedge bow with hollow lines vanished.
The Vigilant, built (1893) to meet the Valkyrie II., in races for the .44ncrica's cup, was the last of the big -American centreboard racers. Centre boards went out of fashion partly because that of the Vigilant in one race could not be lowered— something often happening to centreboards—and partly because a fin-keel was supposed to be a better device for giving lateral plane.
The Vigitant's centreboard had been heavily weighted in order to lower her centre of gravity, but a fin-keel was found to afford an equally satisfactory lateral plane, while lowering the ballast still further than a weighted centreboard could. Both the Defender and the Valkyrie III. demonstrated the value of the fin-keel, and they confirmed the good opinion of overhangs that had been created by the Muria/to. As there was no tax on beam in the international races, the line of development which followed was inevitable. By successive steps through the Columbia and the Constitution, the model of the Reliance, built in 1903 to defend the America's cup, came as a natural growth. The Reliance was 25.53 feet broach to a water-line length of 89.9, an over-all length of 143, and a draught of 19.58.
In smaller -American racers these proportions have been carried much further. The Outlook, a Boston model, was 64 feet long over all to a water-line length of 21 feet, while her beam was 15 feet and her draught was 6 inches. She had the marvelous record of 13 knots an hour.
British designers have not gone so far. They feel that a racer should also be a cruiser. The Shamrock III., designed by William Fife, as the challenger of 1903. was avowedly of the cruiser, or 'wholesome' type. Iler hull had plenty of room for storing cargo, hut she was defeated by margins wide enough to demonstrate beyond dis pute that racers and cruisers arc of two distinct classes, and that it is useless to try to pit the cruiser against the racer.
Yacht sails were once made to bag like a purse net. Now they are made as flat as possible save for a slight hollow in the Intr.
Lug sails, that were common fifty years ago, have disappeared. So have square topsails set on yards above the fore and aft sail of schooners, sloops, and cutters. Where the Maria set a single jib forward of the mast, modern racers carry three in moderate weather, save only when the wind is well aft. Then a single great tri angle of canvas, the balloon jib. is spread. In stead of a great square sail spread from a yard when running before the wind there is now a spinnaker, a triangle of canvas that extends from the topmast-head to the deek and out along a boom rigged broad off on either side.
The Galatea. spread 7387 feet of canvas by the rule of measurement the Mayflower. S824: the Shamrock 1!!. spread 11.337; and the Pr/inner, 16.169. .1nd neither of the ravers of 1903 had as much displacement as the Galatea. Where the of 1873 carried 671 feet of canvas. the Outlook of 1903 carried 1800.