In 1895, to promote the building of yachts fit for cruising—thatamcgi—British yachtsmen adopted a measurement rule penalising beam and draught. In 1902 the New York Yacht Club adopted a rule looking to the same end.
In 1895 the Seawanhaka-Corinthian Yacht Club provided an international challenge cup for racers not smaller than the 15-foot class nor larger than the 25-hiot class—from a 11;11f rater to a two and a half rater, according to the Brit ish nomenclature. A British challenger, Arthur Brand, brought the Spruce ff., a yacht 15.83 feet long on the water line and spreading 197 feet of canvas. The Etheltcynn, designed by W. 1'. Stephens, defended the cup successfully. She was 23 feet 4 inches over all, 14 feet 6 inches on the water• line, 6 feet 7 inches broad, and 7 inches draught. She carried a metal centreboard that dropped five feet below the keel and weighed 55 pounds. The Ethellrynn was a fair type of the half rater of her day. In 1896 the Royal Saint Lawrence Yacht Club won this cup, with a half rater called Glencairn. Since then the size of the yachts has increased to'the limit allowed by the original conditions, but the Canadians have very well maintained a superiority in the races for this cup.
The crews of the racers in these cup contests are always amateurs. The races are contests between national crews as well as yacht-design ers. The start of each race is therefore made with a single gun—the yachts may cross the line with the gun, but not before, and the last yacht to cross is handicapped by her distance behind the leader. In the America's cup races, where pro fessional sailors are hired, the test of ships is the object, and the yachts cross at will within a two-minute limit, and are timed on the in stant of crossing. In 1896 a third international cup was provided by yachtsmen on the Great Lakes. Yachting had been a popular sport there for many years. The Detroit Boat Club was established in 1839. The Royal Canadian Yacht Club of Toronto was organized in 1852. The members of the yacht clubs along the Great Lakes number thousands. In 1896 E. C. Berryman, through the Lincoln Park Yacht Club, of Chi cago, challenged the Royal Canadian Yacht Club to a race between 45-footers. The Toledo Inter
national Yacht Racing Association gave a cup for the prize. Mr. Berryman sailed the Vence dor, the Toronto Club the Canada. The Canada won, and her cup was then made a perpetual challenge cup for international races on the Great Lakes. The cup has crossed the line several times since then. In the races of 1903 the American challenger, Irondcanoit, beat the Cana dian defender, Stratheona. The yachts of the lakes are of the fin-keel type, carrying large sail area. Because of the imperfection of even the best rules for handicapping big yachts in races with little ones, the building of yachts from one design has become popular. The 'Water Wags' of Dublin Bay, Ireland, were the original one design racers. The type came into use in 1873. Each 'wag' is 13 feet long by 4 feet 10 inches wide, and mast and canvas are precisely the same for all. In the United States there are one design racers 70 feet lonE on the water line. While built to develop good seamanship, the one design yachts, in spite of the greatest care to make them alike, have never been all precisely alike in their sailing qualities—a proof that variations so small as to be invisible affect the speed of racers. The designing of racers is so much a matter of scientific calculation that the new boats of each year commonly' heat those built before, but designers cannot yet foretell definite ly what a racer will do. Neither have the lines of the swiftest possible wind-driven hull yet been laid down.
Captain R. F. Loper, of Philadelphia, built the first American steam pleasure taint, the Colonel •/ohn Nicrcns. She was 92 feet long and carried two low-pressure engines with eylinders IS X 14 inches. The paddle-wheel Firefly, built by the Aspinwalls in 1854, was the first American steamer to be properly elassed as one of a fleet belonging to a recognized yacht club.
In Great Britain, the paddle-wheel Victoria and Albert, launched for the Queen, April 6, 1843, was the first notable steam yacht. She was 225 feet long, and had a record of 11.5 knots—something remarkable for that period.