YAKIMA, yiifkiana (runaway, applied to them in derision by another tribe). An im portant con federaey of Sbahaptian stock (q.v.), formerly occupying a considerable territory on the Yakima and Columbia rivers, eastern \Vash inglim, and now gathered with other tribes on the Yakima Reservation in the same country. They call themselves Waptailinim, 'people of the narrows,' in allusion to their principal village, formerly situated at the narrows of the Yakima River, near the present Union Gap. They were called Cutsahnim by Lewis and Clark, who vis ited them in 1804. They came in contact with traders and missionaries at an early period, and in 1855, with other tribes, made a treaty with the Government by which they ceded must of their territory and agreed to come upon the present reservation. Some of the tribes, as the Talus (q.v.), have never recognized the treaty and steadily refuse to come upon the reservation. In
their original condition the Yakima were salmon fishers, root-diggers, berry-pickers, hunters, and active traders between the tribes east of the Rocky and those west of the Cascades. Although outside the buffalo range, they some times crossed the mountains in large parties to hunt buffalo in the plains, seldom returning without a hostile encounter with the Eastern tribes. They used both the skin tipi and the mat-covered lodge. They are now chiefly farm ers and stoek-raisers, raising crops by irrigation, and nearly all are self-supporting. The ma jority are Catholics, through the efforts of the Jesuit missionaries. The entire number of In dians upon the reservation in 1903 was about 2300, of whom the Yakima confederates may number 1500.