YANG-TSE-KIANG, yii rig'tsO'kyling' ( he Yang-tse River). The longest and most im portant river of China, having a length of over 3000 miles and a drainage area of between 650,000 and square miles (Slap: China, C 5). It has its origin in a number of small rivulets which at a height of over 16,000 feet above the level of the sea dash down the north ern slope of the snow-covered Tang-la Mountains of Tibet. near latitude 33° 45' N.. and longitude E. Under the name of the Murni-usu or 'Tor tuous Stream' it flows east and northeast for some distance, receives two important affluents the Napchi-tai and the Toktonai—from the Kuen lun Mountains in the northwest, and gets the name of Di-ehu Dr, -clm. At about 98° E. longitude it takes a southerly course and for sev eral hundred miles—with the Tibetan name of Ngeb-chu or the Chinese name of Kin-sha-kiang, `River of Golden Sand'—it parallels its great tributary the Yalung-kiang (q.v.). In latitude 26" N. it enters the Chinese Province of Yumnan, bursts through its roeky harriers on the east, takes a northeasterly direction, receives from the north the turbulent waters of the Yalung in lati tude 260 35' N. and the name of Pei- or Pai-) sh 'white waters'), forms in part of its emirs'.
the boundary VIM-Min and Sze-Allem:1nd enters Sze-chum], which it traverses in a north easterly direction. here it receives from the south the waters of the 11(Mg or Ta-kwan, the Nan-kwang, I he Yungning, the Chib-shui, the K'i kiang, and from Kwei-chow the Wu or Kung-t'an at the pity of Vii-chow, 72 miles east of Ch'ung Wing. From the north it receives the Min at II;ii-chow or Sui-fu (taking the name of Min kiang) , the T'o at Lu-chow fu, and the at Ch'ung-leing (q.v.) in latitude 29° 34' N. and longitude 107° 2' E., all navigable by native craft for hundreds of Between. 500 and 600 miles farther east, at a point 15 miles west of 1-chang (q.v.), it escapes from the mountains, and with slackened pace and many a bend and de tour pnrsues a generally east and east-sontlo.ast
course through the very heart of China, receiv ing the entire drainage of the provinces of Du peh. Ngan-hwei. Kiang-si, and Kiang-su. and near the little island of Sit-mei-sham in latitude 31° 25' N., and longitude 122° 14' E., it pours into the Yellow Sea 77)1.0)10 cubic feet of water per second, and annually deposits in it about 6,000,000,000 cubic feet of suspended mat ter.
From the city of Fu-chow, in Sze-clmen, as far east as Ngandiwei and beyond, it is known as the Ta-kiang or 'Great River,' the Ch'ang kiang or 'Long River,' or simply as Kiang or `Tim River.' Front old Province of Yang—to the sea, it is properly known as the Yang-tse, hut foreigners are in the habit of ap plying the name to the whole river. With its numerous tributaries and feeders the Yang-tse provides an unrivaled system of internal com munication, which is now practically open to foreign commerce. Ilankow, 000 miles from the sea, may be by the largest ocean steam ships trading with the East. and l-chang, 500 miles up, by light-draught steamboats. Above this the river presents a succession of gorges and rapids. with a very strong and swift current up which native craft (up to 60 or 70 tons burden) are hauled at greet risk and expense, and frequent loss of life, by large crews of native trackers, at the rate of a few miles a day. All attempts to use steam as far as Clfungleing have resulted in failure. P'ing-sbui-hien, 200 miles above Cb'ung-king. is the limit of native navigation. Toward the end of summer the river frequently rises as much as 50 feet, flooding the fields and towns on its banks over a vast area, and sometimes causing terrible destruction of life.