YAQUI, yVkA. An important and warlike tribe of Pi man stock (o.v.). who have numerous villages along the Yaqui River in central Sonora, Mexh.o. They are a robust, active people, in dustrious. enterprising, talented in musie, and of most determined bravery. At honie the men concern themselves chiefly with stock-raising and the cultivation of corn, cotton, beans. tobacco, and the maguey from which the mescal liquor is obtained. The women are expert weavers. Their houses are light structures adapted 10 warn: climate. Each village has its own ehief. They Lave the ('hut system and several ceremonial so cieties resembling those of the Pueblo 1riicc•s. In the outlying country the men are employed as miners. cattlemen, teamsters:, and pearl divers. They make good soldiers, but their history has been one of almost constant revolt against the Mexican Government. A rising in 1740-41, in which they were joined by the neighboring Mayo (q.v.), was put down by Governor Vildosola. who defeated the Indians in two great. battles, and shot their chiefs after the tribes had submitted. The Yaqui remained quiet until 1825, when an attempt at taxation by the newly established Mexican Government led to another revolt under Juzueanea, known as Banderas, from a banner which he carried, claimed to have originally be longed to Alontezmna. lie proved an able gen eral and organizer, making his own powder. ar ranging alliances with the neighboring, tribes, restraining his people from unnecessary cruelties, and hiring several white soldiers to drill his men. After three years' fighting, said to have cost 3000 lives. the war was brought to a close on the promise of concessions by the _Mexican Government, with permission to the Yaqui to retain their captured arms, cattle, and supplies.
Banderas was commissioned Captain-General of the tribe w•itlt a regular salary.
In 1S32 Banderas headed another rising with the purpose of organizing- the tribes of Sonora into an Indian State with himself as King. With a thousand Yaqui warriors, reinforced by con tingents of Pima (q.v.) and Opatfi (q.t.). he marched upon 'Fres, hut was met and defeated by Escalante in a desperate battle. Banderas him self was taken and shot. The war continued for nearly a year longer, hut the Indians were finally brought to submission. Another war, be gun about 1884. ended in April, 1887. with the capture of the Yaqui chief Cajenie, who was pub licly executed in the presence of his people. This war had been brought about by encroach ments upon the lands of the tribe, and at its close the Indians were supposed to be completely crushed. but continued inroads of gold-hunters upon the Yaqui territory, with the conniv anee of the Mexican Govenunent, led to serious disturbanees a few years afterwards and cul minated in 1900 in a general rising. In one of the first engagements a small detachment of Mexiesin troops was surprised near Mazatlan and half their number were killed. Soon afterwards General Torres with 700 troops surrounded a large force of Yaqui in a cation near the same place and killed 124 men, women, and children, and captured 234 women and children, who were at once deported to practical slavery in Yucatan. In 1740 the Yaani were supposed to number about 40,000, but continued wars have reduced them to about 13,000,