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arabia, coast and southern

YEMEN. A region in the southwestern cor ner of Arabia, extending along the coast of the Red Sea from Hedjaz to the Strait of Bab-el Mandeb, and bounded by the desert and Iladra ulna on the east and by the Gulf of Aden on the south. It forms part of the Turkish Empire (Map: Turkey in Asia, (,/ 12). Area, about 75,000 square miles. In its most extended sense the name Yemen has been used to designate prac tically all Arabia south of Syria. The southern section of Yemen, east of the Strait of Bab-el is now practically in the British sphere of influence, as is also the island of hama•an off the coast. Yemen, the present territory, is the southern and most favored part of the ancient .1retbirt Felix, or 'Happy Arabia.' It is a moun tainous country, some of the grea test elevations in Arabia being in its southern portion. From the coast a series of arid terraces rise to the moun tains from 30 to 50 miles away. There are many valleys rich in all kinds of tropical and subtropical vegetation. These districts have been terraced with great labor for the purpose of increasing the productive area. The high plateau extending north and south along the central region is scarred by black, ugly volcanic formations.

The climate of Yemen is hot on the coast, and is described as ideal in the higher regions, a daily mist rising there and protecting the land from the scorching, vertical rays of the sun. The rainfall is ample except in the north. Coffee is the main crop. Hodeida is now the leading port. Sana and Mocha are other prominent towns. Transportation is effected by camel caravans over the difficult mountain roads. Yemen has recently been divided into four vilayets—Azir, Bodeida. Sana. and Tais. Population estimated at about 750,000. In ancient times the Sabceans (q.v.) held sway in Yemen. The country passed under the dominion of the Turks in the sixteenth century. In 1930 the Arabs drove out the Turks, and later the Imam of Sana became a powerful potentate ruling over an extensive domain. In 1872 the land came under eontrol of the Turks again, but their troubled rule has become scarcely more than nominal.

YEN (.Tap.. from Chin. yuca, round object). A Japanese coin minted in both gold and silver. The gold yen is worth about $0.997 ; the silver yen about $0.528.