YENISEI, One of the three great rivers of Siberia, and one of the four or five long est rivers in the world. It rises on the southern slope of the Sayansky Mountains in the north western part of Along°lia, and flows in a general north.northwest direction across Siberia and within the Territory of Yeniseisk until it empties into the Arctic Ocean in longitude 80° E. through the Gulf of Yenisei (Slap: Asia, 11 2). The gulf is a large estuary 10 to 100 miles wide and about 250 miles long, separated from the estuary of the Obi by a peninsula 175 miles wide in the south, but only about 10 miles wide in the north, so that the two great rivers may be said to have a common embouchure. The length of the Yenisei proper, excluding the estuary, is about 2500 miles, but measuring from the son•ce of the Selenga, which flows into Lake Baikal and thence through the Angara to the Yenisei, the length is 3250 miles. This length is about equal to that of the Obi-Irtysh and the Yang tse-kiang, and is exceeded only by that of the Amazon, the Nile. and the Mississippi-Missouri. After breaking through the Sayansky Mountains in a series of falls and rapids, the Yenisei pursues a swift course for several hundred miles until it receives the Angara, after which it flows through the great Siberian plains with a sluggish course, though its eastern bank is flanked by highlands and mountain ranges al most to its mouth. Along its middle course the banks are generally covered with forests of pine, birch, and larch, but the extreme lower portion passes through the Arctic tundras. In its lower reaches the river sometimes has a width of four miles during the floods, and near the estuary it divides into parallel branches in closing a num ber of islands, while the upper part of the estuary itself is filled with a large archipelago, which has given it the name of the Liman of the Seventy Islands.
The Yenisei receives three great tributaries from the east, the Angara. or Upper Tunguska, which drains Lake Baikal, the Stony Tunguska, and the Lower Tunguska. Through these and its smaller western tributaries it approaches so closely to its two great neighboring rivers, the Obi and the Lena, that it forms a link in a prac tically continuous waterway through the whole length of Siberia. A canal was completed in 1891 between the has, a tributary of the Yenisei, and the het, flowing into the Obi, but, owing to the shallowness of the two connecting streams, it is passable only by small vessels. The main stream of the Yenisei is navigable to the base of the Sayansky Mountains at. Slinusinsk. 1850 miles above the estuary, and about a dozen steamers ply on it regularly. The river is frozen for only three months in the south. but in the north it is ice-bound the greater part of the year, navigation at the mouth being open scarcely more than six weeks, and being moreover ren dered dangerous by severe northern gales. Never theless sea-going vessels can ascend the river as far as Yeniseisk, near the mouth of the Angara. and ships from Europe have for a number of years regnlarly carried supplies for the mines along the river, by way of the Arctic Ocean, a good harbor having been found in the estuary. The Trans-Siberian Railroad crosses the river at Krasnoyarsk.