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Yeniseisk

mountains, south and north

YENISEISK, of Siberia extending from the Arctic Ocean to Mon golia and bounded on the east by Yakutsk and Irkutsk and on the west by Tobolsk and Tomsk (Map: Asia, J 2). Area, estimated at over 988,000 square miles, or nearly half of Euro pean Russia (excluding Finland). The region has a greatly varied surface. In the south the Sayansky Mountains extend in parallel chains inclosing deep and narrow valleys and rising in their highest peaks to over 5000 feet. North of the Sayansky Mountains the surface is mostly un dulating or hilly and is densely wooded. The en tire portion north of the Tungus :Mountains con sists of tundras varied to a slight extent by hilly patches east of the Yenisei. The region belongs largely to the basin of the Yenisei (q.v.), which receives many tributaries. In the northern part there are also a number of rivers flowing direct ly into the Arctic Ocean„ such as the Khatang,a, the Tainmr, and the Pyassina. The lakes are comparatively small. The climate is on the whole continental and extremely severe. In the northern part the soil remains frozen at a depth of two feet even in the summer, and the winter temperature in that part is lower than in Nova Zembla. The mean annual temperature ranges

from 8° at Tolsty Nos (latitude 70° 5' N.) to 31° at Minusinsk (latitude 43' N.), Yeni seisk is not rich in minerals, although gold is found in the extreme south. In 1SOD the output of gold amounted to nearly 81800 ounces. There is an abundance of agricultural laud in the south, but labor is very scarce. The land belongs almost entirely to the Crown. The ex tensive and valuable forests are utterly unpro tected by the government and are suffering greatly from conflagrations. Fishing is carried on extensively in the north. The Trans-Siberian Railway runs through the southern part of the POI IliAtion, in 1897. 559,902, of Munn the non-Russians (chiefly Tunguses, Yakut s, Samoyeds, (Istyaks, and Tatars) num bered about 50.0nn. The Russian population includes over 57.000 exiles and a large number of dissenters. Capital, Krasnoyarsk (q.v.).